Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The setting up of marine and coastal protected areas, one of most significant strategies of coastal management employed worldwide to maintain ecosystem services and mitigate biodiversity loss, has to be accompanied by an impact evaluation to guide decision-makers, practitioners and the relevant population. This paper presents a counterfactual approach of fishing households' profitability and vulnerability after the setting up of a marine and coastal protected area (MPA). By using the DID method (Difference-in-Differences), this approach is a comparison of average change in outcome over time for the treated group (fishing households with a main fishing ground adjacent to the MPA) and for the control group (fishing households with a main fishing ground remote from the MPA). From a dataset made up of 183 fishing households in Betenti Islands (Saloum, Delta, Senegal) surveyed twice (one year before the MPA's setting up and six years after it) and divided in two geographical strata, the main result is the applicability and confirmation of the value of a counterfactual approach to assess the positive effect of proximity with a MPA on fishing households' income and vulnerability, independently of fishing productive assets and conditions, and of any change that have affected them during the period taken in consideration. This counterfactual assessment should help to calibrate the necessary investments and to adapt the functioning of a MPA but also to target adequate mitigation and compensation measures for the non-beneficiary households.
Source: J.Y. Weigel, P. Morand, A. Charpin and O. Sadio (2018); “Impact assessment of a marine and coastal protected area on fishing households through a counterfactual approach. A Senegalese case study (West Africa), Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 155, 1 April 2018, Pages: 113 - 125; Received: 25 September 2017; Revised: 5 February 2018; Accepted: 12 February 2018; Available online: 21 February 2018 under DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.02.009.
Coastal and Marine Geography is a rapidly developing area of research within the Geosciences in Germany, generating new insights into highly dynamic environments that are constantly subject to change. This research field combines different theoretical and methodological approaches from various associated disciplines to explore the natural and societal dimensions of coasts and seas. In this special issue, we bring together these multidisciplinary research approaches applied from coast to coast.
Keywords: Coast; Coastal and marine geography; Geosciences; Germany.
Source: P. M. Link, L. F. Borchert, D. Süsser and P. von Prondzinski (2018); “Coast to coast: current multidisciplinary research trends in German coastal and marine geography”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, February 2018, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages: 1 - 4; First online: 30 December 2017 under DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-017-0578-5
La Manga del Mar Menor is a spit between the Mediterranean Sea and the Minor Sea. The dimensions of this sandbar are about 20 km length and about 100 m of average wide, with only one access at South by landside. Due to its natural attractive, beaches, weather, gastronomy and diversity of leisure options, La Manga is the main seaside tourist town in the Region of Murcia (Spain). It is an attractive area, mainly in July and August, when traffic problems increase significantly. Note that, because of its dimensions there is only one access route and one exit route. This physical limitation makes congestion worse because there is not enough space to alternative routes. Moreover, all external effects related to traffic, such as noise and pollution, also increase. These effects damage the initial quality of life of this area and cast serious doubts on its sustainability.
A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) has been developed at La Manga in order to encourage sustainable mobility through a rational use of the private car and to ensure and make easier the intermodality among public transport, bicycles and pedestrian areas. Two packages of measures have been developed. Specifically, infrastructural measures focus on improving sustainable mobility. For example, a dissuasive car park near to intermodal area to connect all transport modes easily, measures to improve fluidity of local buses or safe cycle-lines. All these measures are evaluated economically. The other package of measures is focused on economic measures, such as intermodal transport card or environmental taxes. These measures are described qualitatively.
Currently, the local government is studying all proposals in order to agree on clear responsibilities and, allocate budgets to put them into practice, to transform La Manga in a place with quality of life throughout years.
Keywords: Cycle-lines; Dissuasive car park; Intermodality; La Manga del Mar Menor; Pedestrians; Public transport; SUMP.
Source: P. Jiménez, A. Martínez and M. Calatrava (2018); “Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan at La Manga del Mar Menor (Spain)”, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 13 (2018), Issue 4, Pages: 594 - 604; Available online under DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V13-N4-594-604
This contribution addresses the need for a simple model for managers to employ when planning strategies for the management of touristic beaches under sea level rise. A methodological framework was developed and tested in two Aegean archipelago islands (Lesvos and Rhodes, Greece). The scheme can represent the status of touristic island beaches, based on easily obtained variables/indicators and projections of beach erosion/retreat under different scenarios of mean sea level rise (MSLR) and extreme events. Information on beach geomorphological characteristics, environmental setting, water quality, management, and services (such as those used in the “Blue Flag” classification) was collated/collected and beach erosion/retreat due to CV & C was estimated through suitable ensembles of cross-shore (1-D) morphodynamic models. A Strength-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) framework was employed to assist in the selection of indicators and multicriteria analysis used to optimize indicator weights and rank beaches according to their sustainability under sea level rise. Implementation of the framework at the two islands has shown that: the majority of Lesvos and Rhodes beaches (82% of a total of 217 beaches and 58% of a total of 97 beaches, respectively) can be classified as beaches with no, or minimal, human interference, suggesting that under environmentally sound coastal management further touristic development might be afforded; there could be very significant effects of the sea level rise on the carrying and buffering capacities of the most developed (“Blue Flag”) beaches, with some expected even under conservative projections to be completely eroded by 2100, unless technical adaptation measures are taken; and using the proposed framework, touristic beaches can be rapidly ranked in terms of their resilience to sea level rise and their development potential, allowing prioritization of effective management responses.
Keywords: Beach management; Blue flag classification; Beach erosion; Climate variability and change; Morphodynamic models; Analytical hierarchy process.
Source: O. Tzoraki, I. N. Monioudi, A. F. Velegrakis, N. Moutafis, G. Pavlogeorgatos and D. Kitsiou (2018);
“Resilience of Touristic Island Beaches Under Sea Level Rise: A Methodological Framework”, Coastal Management, Volume 46, Issue 2, 2018, Pages: 78 - 102; Published online: 8 February 2018 under DOI : https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2018.1426376