Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The translation of a complex adaptive systems approach into the assessment and management of marine systems has been acknowledged as difficult and particularly challenging (Arkema et al., 2006; Levin et al., 2009; Tallis et al., 2010; Katsanevakis et al., 2011). The picture is further complicated in Europe. The MSFD was introduced into an already complex European governance landscape for the marine environment, characterised by a variety of maritime activities, often in conflict, and regulated by fragmented, sector-based public policies operating at multiple levels (De Jonge et al., 2006; De Jonge, 2007; Van Tatenhove, 2013; Boyes and Elliott, 2014).
An integrated, ecosystem-based approach is fundamental to preserve essential ecological processes and achieve or maintain the ecological resilience of the Adriatic Sea social-ecological system, while at the same time fostering the sustainability of maritime activities. For these reasons, it is important to verify the extent to which an integrated approach for the assessment and management of the Adriatic Sea social-ecological system is already in place, and identify major strengths and weaknesses in current practices.
Keywords: Adaptive systems approach; Marine systems; Italy; Adriatic Sea.
Source: E. Bigagli (2017); “Is it possible to implement a complex adaptive systems approach for marine systems? The experience of Italy and the Adriatic Sea”, Original Research Article, Ocean & Coastal Managemt, Volume 149, 15 November 2017, Pages 81 – 95; Received: 17 December 2016; Revised: 14 September 2017: Accepted: 20 September 2017; Available online: 3 October 2017.
Open‐ocean fisheries expanded rapidly from the 1960s through the 1980s, when global fish catches peaked, plateaued and possibly began to decline. While catches remain at best stagnant, fishing effort globally continues to increase. The likelihood of ecosystem impacts occurring due to fishing is related to fishing effort and is thus also expected to be increasing. Despite this rapid growth, ecological research into the impacts of fisheries on open‐ocean environments has lagged behind coastal and deep-sea environments. This review addresses this knowledge gap by considering the roles fisheries play in controlling the open-ocean at three ecological scales: (i) species (population or stock); (ii) biological community; and (iii) ecosystem. We find significant evidence for top-down control at the species and community scales. While evidence of ecosystem-level impacts in the open-ocean were not explicit in the literature, we provide examples of these impacts in several marine pelagic systems and encourage further research at this ecological scale. At the species level, fishing can reduce abundance, and alter physiology and life history traits, which, in turn, affect the functional role of the species within the biological community. Fishing may also induce changes to open-ocean community trophodynamics, and reduce biodiversity and resilience in open-ocean ecosystems. Our ability to manage open-ocean ecosystems has significant implications for provisioning of ecosystem services and food security. However, we posit that the monitoring required to assure the sustainability of open-ocean ecosystems is not being undertaken, and will require coordination with the Global Ocean Observing System, industry, and academia.
Source: G. O. Crespo and D.C. Dunn (2017); “A review of the impacts of fisheries on open-ocean ecosystems“, ICES Journal of Marine Science, Volume 74, Issue 9, 1 December 2017, Pages 2283 -2297, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsx084; Received: 30 August 2016; Revision Received: 14 April 2017; Accepted: 1 May 2017; Published: 26 May 2017.
Natural and human interventions have posed serious threats to the sustainability and development of the coastal environment. This problem is more apparent in Karachi, a metropolitan city of Pakistan, which has a coastline extending up to about 30 km. The city, with more than 18 million people, generates around 472 million gallons per day of municipal and industrial wastewater. Out of which, about 80% is being discharged untreated into the Arabian Sea. The problem is more aggravated by oil spills from cargo ships, and oil tankers in the Harbor Area. This research study was focused to assess the level of pollution and its impact on the coastal environment. During the study, surface seawater samples were collected from six different locations in Manora Channel, the main pollution prone area. Significantly high volatile matter (42–65%) coupled with the measurable depletion of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and a decrease in pH level was observed. Moreover, the distribution pattern of heavy metal pollution at the Karachi coast was found in the following descending order: Zn > Mn > Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb. Its concentration at several locations was not very critical. However, the trend indicated the likely increase in metal pollution. At Fish Harbor, the metal concentration was higher when compared with the sea water quality standard. Overall, the study suggested that the concerned authorities and industrialists should jointly take measures to reduce pollution and to achieve coastal ecosystem sustainability.
Source: S. J. Jilani (2017); “Present pollution profile of Karachi coastal waters”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, Pages: 1 – 8; First online: 16 November 2017 under DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-017-0581-x
To what extent citizens are willing not only to support ambitious climate policy but also willing to pay for such policy remains subject to debate. Our analysis addresses three issues in this regard: whether, as is widely assumed but not empirically established, willingness to support (WTS) is higher than willingness to pay (WTP); whether the determinants of the two are similar; and what accounts for within-subject similarity between WTS and WTP. We address these issues based on data from an original nationally representative survey (N = 2500) on forest conservation in Brazil, arguably the key climate policy issue in the country. The findings reveal that WTP is much lower than WTS. The determinants differ to some extent as well, regarding the effects of age, gender, and trust in government. The analysis also provides insights into factors influencing how much WTS and WTP line up within individuals, with respect to age, education, political ideology, salience of the deforestation issue, and trust in government. Our findings provide a more nuanced picture of how strong public support for climate change policy is and a starting point for more targeted climate policy communication.
Keywords: Climate policy; Citizens; Willingness to support
Source: Z. Bakaki and T. Bernauer (2017); “Citizens show strong support for climate policy, but are they also willing to pay?”, Climatic Change, Volume 145, November 2017, Issue 1–2, Pages: 15 - 26 ; First online: 30 September 2017 under DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2078-x