Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Activities and resources found in the ocean and coastal realm of Trinidad and Tobago contribute critically to the identity and well-being of the country's citizenry. However, the current governance framework and capacity to manage facets of the coastal zone is proving to be inadequate, with resource mismanagement, degradation and depletion evident. This is compounded by the absence of a co-ordinating mechanism and collaborative process through which stakeholders can seek to cohesively manage the ocean and coastal sphere in order to minimise conflict and maintain its flows of ecosystem goods and services in the long term.
This paper recommends more sustainable, equitable and feasible means to manage the ocean and coastal realm for which Trinidad and Tobago has claimed stewardship. It critically analyses the current governance framework and juxtaposes it against identified theoretical and observed ICZM best practices worldwide. A more co-ordinated, cohesive and collaborative approach to governance is proposed that is participatory and co-operative in nature and underpinned by principles aligned to achieving sustainability in economic, social and ecological realms.
Keywords: ICZM; Coastal governance; Trinidad and Tobago
Source: K. Hassanali (2015); “Improving ocean and coastal governance in Trinidad and Tobago - Moving towards ICZM”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 106, March 2015, Pages 1 - 9; Received: 2 June 2014; Received in revised form: 28 September 2014; Accepted: 5 January 2015; Available online under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.01.002
Source: H. Thébault, C. Scheurle, C. Duffa and P. Boissery (2014); “Valuation and Sensitivity of Socio-economic Activities along the French Mediterranean Coast”, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 9 (2014), Issue 6, Pages 14, from 754 to 768.
Serious attempts have been made to manage the highly populated Indian coast during the last 25 years in terms of regulating the activities and managing disasters. This has led to formulation of various policies to maintain environmental quality and sustainably manage the coastal resources. Basically, the coastal zone needs to address the demands of all the stakeholders starting from traditional local communities and administrators to academic researchers, etc. India has faced tremendous challenges in implementing regulatory measures like Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) issued in 1991 by demarcating countries coast into four different zones with provisions and prohibitions for various activities. The concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been taken with the support of spatial decision-support tools derived from satellite data including national programmes on inter-sectoral approaches towards ICZM. From 2004 onwards a series of disasters have reminded the necessity of having regulatory measures through implementable approaches. Subsequently, the CRZ 2011 notification has been a new addition to the list of policies using bottom-up approach as a good governance tool. The country has strengthened its potential in coastal management, disaster management and several community based field projects to enhance participation of stakeholders. This paper is aimed to critically review the processes that are made during the last two decades including the future challenges towards sustainable management of coastal zone with special emphasis on the three coastal areas from eastern, western and southern coast of India.
Keywords: Indian coast; Disasters & Climate change; Coastal Zone Management policies.
Source: R. R. Krishnamurthy, R. DasGupta, R. Chatterjee and R. Shaw (2014); “Managing the Indian coast in the face of disasters & climate change: a review and analysis of India’s coastal zone management policies”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, December 2014, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp. 657 - 672; Available online: 18 September 2014.
Formal institutional ecosystems management has been in existence since the creation of the Yellowstone National Park in the United States of America in 1872. Subsequently, many countries, including Zambia have evolved both legislative and policy frameworks for protecting various ecosystems. This move implied creating institutions to manage such areas accompanied by a statute to police the given area. Offenders are punished for breaking the law that protects the given resource. The results from such actions have been a growing conflict between the local communities and the ecosystem or resource management institution. In order to create harmony, ecosystems managements, in some sectors have evolved new strategies of sharing management responsibilities and benefits with local communities. This specific resource is in the wildlife sector in Zambia. The need to balance management costs and the benefits from the ecosystem services thus arises. However, in order to strike a reasonable balance, consideration should be given to adopting additional management tools for evaluating ecosystems so that one can place an economic value on any given resource. The major tool that has seen wide application in Zambia has been the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). However, methods for carrying out economic evaluation of ecosystems exist and have been developed over the years elsewhere. They include the Travel Cost Method (TCM). This method uses a surrogate market to estimate a consumer surplus and is site specific. The second common method is the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) that solicits for a respondents willingness to pay (WTP) for an improvement to an environmental good or the willingness to accept (WTA) for a loss or partial loss of an environmental good using a hypothetical market. As a tool, the CVM can also be used in calculating a cost benefit analysis for a project in a given area and there by arriving at an economic decision. The method can also be used in a failed or derelict ecosystem reclamation and restoration efforts. Any conservation effort should consider the local community needs.
Source: S. M. Siachoono (2015); "Considerations for additional tools in ecosystems management: Lessons from Zambia", International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 7, No. 1 (January 2015), pp. 11 - 20; Received: 20 August 2014; Accepted: 22 December 2014; Published: 30 January 2015; DOI: 10.5897/IJBC2014.0756