Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Florida Beach is a coastal village located on the southwest of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. The main environmental problems of this area are the death of mangroves due to the construction of a road to provide access to the community, and the retreat of the coastal line due to the effect of wall causing by the buildings next to it. The proposed Integrated Coastal Management Program that would solve or mitigate environmental problems was developed in an integrated manner. The general objective of the program is: Harmonizing uses of the wetland associated with the coastal community of Playa Florida and surrounding areas, which is part of the National Strategy for Sustainable Conservation and Use of Biodiversity, as a means of achieving an environmentally sustainable development of the community. We focused on: (1) Reduce conflicts of interest between the main economic activities in the area (fisheries and recreation) and the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; (2) Improve the environmental conditions of the area with the gradual solution of environmental problems; (3) Improve the quality of life of the community with the diversification of the uses of the wetland; and (4) Strengthen the financial sustainability of the actions of the Integrated Coastal Management.
Source: Plasencia et al. (2014); “Integrated Coastal Management Program in the coastal village of Playa Florida and surrounding areas, Camagüey, Cuba”, International Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 4, No. 37 1-12 (DOI: 10.5376/ijms.2014.04.0037); Received: 14 May 2014; Accepted: 19 July 2014; Published Online: 29 July 2014.
Cruise tourism is a growing sector of the travel and recreation industry. Due to its mobility it is often one of the first forms of tourism to relocate to new host environments and it is encouraged by transition economies looking to increase foreign revenue. Yet, the environmental impacts of cruise vessels on the host environment can be significant, and due to the growth of this sector, it is likely to increase. The Mediterranean is a growing market for cruise tourism. The absence of any international co-ordination of the industry at the regional level leaves it open to exploitation, especially considering the lack of effective pollution control mechanisms in most States. The Adriatic Sea, and Croatia in particular, is of growing interest to the cruise industry. As such Croatia can serve as an example of the strategies and practices that will be implemented as the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean States become more stable and accessible. This work examines cruise ship emissions and impacts, points to existing environmental management options, and opens up the discussion on coastal tourism development as a panacea to the current economic crisis in the region.
Keywords: Cruise tourism; Environmental impact; The Adriatic Sea; Croatia.
Source: H. Caric and P. Mackelworth (2014); “Cruise tourism environmental impacts – The perspective from the Adriatic Sea”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 102, Part A, December 2014, Pages 350 – 363; DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.09.008
This paper reports on an aspect of continual research into small island hotel and resort development. Inputted are crucial elements of a consequential literature review linked to an appropriately selected building project case study. The analysis of existing research relevant to the topic correlated concerns flowing from trends of rising tourist numbers set against demands for more unique locations. Concurrently, the main focus of this paper is evaluation of the planning, design, construction and operation of a new tourism resort located on an uninhabited coral atoll identified and considered predicted and actual performance outcomes. Significantly, this 5-year investigation critically reviewed measurable responses to ecological pressures. These were noted in the processes of assessment during and following an initial independent international third-party certification organization’s auditor using a process-based development framework tool. A major driver for the research is the shared aim of several stakeholders involved in associated ‘in time’ studies. This is to ascertain the veracity of specific environmental, social and economic measures when implemented by resort developers and an associated facility management companies. Most actions of these parties are primarily a response to increasing emblematic relevance and exacting government-driven policies. However, many also view broader company (CSR) and community aspirations as factors crucial to the delivering of project sustainability. A primary objective of the broader research programme has involved the engendering of links between theory and practical implementation of sustainable development principles with the reality of development. Another and equally pragmatic consideration was to show and evaluate the use of process tools by those engaged in the planning, design, construction and eventual operation of hotel and resort developments. This activity is to determine their propensity to using performance framework models targeted at achieving sustainable development and improved ecological outcomes.
Coastal zones experience increased rates of coastal erosion, due to rising sea levels, increased storm surge frequencies, reduced sediment delivery and anthropogenic transformations. Yet, coastal zones host ecosystems that provide associated services which, therefore, may be lost due to coastal erosion. In this paper we assess to what extent past and future coastal erosion patterns lead to losses in land cover types and associated ecosystem service values. Hence, historical (based on CORINE land cover information) and projected (based on Dynamic and Interactive Vulnerability Assessment - DIVA - simulations) coastal erosion patterns are used in combination with a benefits transfer approach. DIVA projections are based on regionalized IPCC scenarios. Relative to the period 1975 - 2050, a case study is provided for selected European coastal country member states. For historical (1975 - 2006) coastal erosion trends, we observe territory losses in coastal agricultural, water body and forest & semi-natural areas – total coastal erosion equaling over 4,500 km2. Corresponding coastal ecosystem service values decrease from about €22.3 billion per year in 1975 to about €21.6 billion per year in 2006. For future (2006 - 2050) coastal erosion projections, total territory losses equal between ~3,700 km2 and ~5,800 km2 - coastal wetland areas being affected most severely. Corresponding coastal ecosystem service values decrease to between €20.1 and €19.4 billion per year by 2050. Hence, we argue that the response strategy of EU member states to deal with coastal erosion and climate change impacts should be based on the economic as well as the ecological importance of their coastal zones.
Keywords: Climate change; Coastal erosion; Environment; Ecosystem service values.
Source: P. C. Roebeling, L. Costa, L. Magalhães-Filho and V. Tekken (2013); “Ecosystem service value losses from coastal erosion in Europe: historical trends and future projections”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, September 2013, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 389 -395; Received: 7 August 2012; Accepted: 10 January 2013; Published Online: 25 January 2013.