Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
A global effort is underway by scientists, stakeholders, resource managers, and multisectoral ministerial representatives (e.g. fisheries, transportation, mining, energy, tourism, environment) from 110 economically developing countries to implement ecosystem-based management at the Large Marine Ecosystem scale. The effort is supported with $3.1 billion in financial assistance from the Global Environmental Facility and World Bank to assess and manage goods and services of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) along the coasts of economically developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and eastern Europe. Through a systematic spatial and temporal scaling across multiple jurisdictions (e.g. community, municipal, regional, national, and international) a generic suite of indicators is applied to monitor the annual changes in LME productivity, fish and fisheries, pollution and ecosystem health, socioeconomics, and governance. Ecosystem-based governance practices are being implemented by Commissions that serve as institutional frameworks for restoring and sustaining transboundary LME goods and services. Under activities guided by LME Commissions, the suites of indicators are analyzed in relation to drivers of change and the results are applied to adaptive management regimes to reduce coastal pollution, restore damaged habitats, recover depleted fisheries conserve biodiversity, control nutrient over-enrichment and ocean acidification, and mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate warming. Application of ecosystem-based adaptive management practices presently underway by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea are discussed for the Yellow Sea LME.
Keywords: Adaptive management; Ecosystem-based management; Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs).
Source: K. Sherman (2013); “Adaptive management institutions at the regional level: The case of Large Marine Ecosystems“, In Press, Corrected Proof, Ocean & Coastal Management; Available Online: 3 August 2013 under http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.06.008
There is a growing research interest on the transdisciplinary measurement of vulnerability to climatic hazards from the perspective of integrated river basin management. However, the incorporation of stakeholders’ participation, local knowledge and locally spatial characteristics into the process of such vulnerability assessment is one of the challenges faced by decision-makers, especially in developing countries. This article proposes a novel methodology for assessing and communicating vulnerability to policymaking at the river basin level through a case study of Tachia River basin in Taiwan. The authors used a multicriteria decision analysis to develop an integrated vulnerability index applied to a participatory geographic information system (GIS) to map vulnerability to climatic hazards. Using a GIS-based spatial statistics technique and multivariate analysis, we test the degree to which vulnerabilities are spatially autocorrelated throughout the river basin, explain why clustering of vulnerable areas occurs in specific locations, and why some regions are particularly vulnerable. Results demonstrate that vulnerable areas are spatially correlated across the river basin. Moreover, exposure, biophysical sensitivity, land uses and adaptive capacity are key factors contributing to the formation of localized ‘hot spots’ of similarly and particularly vulnerable areas. Finally, we discuss how the findings provide direction for more effective approaches to river basin planning and management.
Keywords: Assessing vulnerability; Climatic hazards; River basin management; Taiwan.
Source: Hung-Chih Hung and Ling-Yeh Chen (2013); “Incorporating stakeholders’ knowledge into assessing vulnerability to climatic hazards: application to the river basin management in Taiwan”, Climatic Change (2013), September 2013, Issue 1 – 2, Volume 120, Pages: 491 – 507; Received: 26 March 2012; Accepted: 5 June 2013; Published Online: 16 June 2013 under http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0189-7
Sustainable management of estuarine systems requires sound scientific understanding, effective institutional arrangements, an adaptive management framework with clear links between planning, action, monitoring and reporting, and adequate resources. This paper presents a case study showing how the Derwent Estuary Program has coordinated and integrated these elements to improve the environmental condition of the Derwent estuary in southeastern Tasmania.
Examples of science-based management initiatives include a collaborative monitoring and reporting framework between state government, local government and industry partners, as well as a Water Quality Improvement Plan to address heavy metal and nutrient pollution. Since 2000, over $100 million has been invested in water quality improvements with measureable results.
Source: C. Coughanowr and J. Whitehead (2013); “The Derwent Estuary Program: A collaborative model for science-based management, Tasmania, Australia “, In Press, Corrected Proof, Ocean & Coastal Management; Available Online: 29 August 2013 under http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.07.009
A growing awareness of increasing trends in coastal erosion and flooding due to climate change is triggering a demand for the rapid assessment of the potential responses of the coastlines around the world, principally in locations where human occupation is especially endangered. Investigations of present and future physical vulnerability and associated social risk have, therefore, become crucial for coastal management. In order to provide a quick and simple methodology for the identification of vulnerable coastal segments, Sharples (2006) has proposed a mapping methodology, called the smartline approach, which consists of representing, by means of simple lines, a geomorphic classification of the hinterland, backshore and beaches. The aim of this paper is to apply the smartline approach to coastal vulnerability assessment with inclusion of social data. The results show that this methodology is appropriate for the indication of coastal segments with varying degrees of vulnerability to erosion and flooding and for the appraisal of the resulting social risk.
Source: F. Moraes Lins-de-Barros and D. Muehe (2013); “The smartline approach to coastal vulnerability and social risk assessment applied to a segment of the east coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, June 2013, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 211 – 223; Received: 26 November 2010; Revised: 25 May 2011; Accepted: 13 November 2011; Published Online: 6 December 2011 under http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11852-011-0175-y