Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Member States of the European Union and the Mediterranean Regional Sea need to elaborate national strategies for coastal management according to ICZM principles and to undertake national stock-taking, which must consider major actors, laws and institutions influencing the management of their national coastal zone. However, different approaches to coastal management and defence and various degrees of development and implementation of the national ICZM strategies can be found. The research presented in this article aims to analyze the different situations and to contribute to the further development of a common approach in terms of methodology to establish stakeholder and users participation in ICZM. An extensive survey was conducted in five pilot sites along the European Mediterranean coastal zone (Greece, Italy and France) show beach visitors’ perception of ICZM, coastal erosion and coastal defence systems, and beach visitors’ Willingness To Pay (WTP) for beach defence. The survey yielded important information for coastal and beach managers. Surprisingly, the level of awareness about generic Coastal Zone Management was found to be rather low in all regions except Riccione Southern beach, Emilia Romagna Region. In the Languedoc-Roussillon Region, this is justified by the fact that most of the respondents were not local people or beach visitors (other than recreational day-visitors). As regards coastal erosion, it appears significant that, despite the lack of awareness demonstrated overall by stakeholders in the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace, visitors respond very positively to definitions and show awareness of the erosion process in their coastal system. In conclusion, in order to raise public awareness about ICZM, erosion and coastal defence systems, it is suggested that education, training and public awareness should be promoted as well as identification of local needs for the implementation of specific demand-driven studies.
Keywords: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM); Beach erosion; Sustainable tourism; Public perception; Cost benefit analysis; Contingent Valuation Method (CVM).
Source: E. Koutrakis , A. Sapounidis, S. Marzetti, V. Marin, S. Roussel, S. Martino, M. Fabiano, C. Paoli, H. Rey-Valette, D. Povh and C.G. Malvárez (2011); “ICZM and coastal defence perception by beach users: lessons from the Mediterranean coastal area”, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in: Ocean & Coastal Management; Received: 17 November 2009; Revised: 7 September 2011; Accepted: 7 September 2011; Available online under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.09.004.
Conventional sectoral management and piecemeal governance are considered less and less appropriate in pursuit of sustainable development. Ecosystem-based marine spatial management (EB-MSM) is an approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, including human uses, rather than considering single issues, species, or ecosystem services in isolation. Marine spatial planning and ocean zoning are emerging concepts that can support EB-MSM. EB-MSM is driven by high-level goals that managers aim to achieve through the implementation of measures. High-level goals and objectives need to be translated into more operational objectives before specific targets, limits and measures can be elaborated.
Monitoring, evaluation and adaptation are necessary to ensure that marine management measures are both effective and efficient. Solid monitoring frameworks are the foundation of adaptive management, as they provide the necessary information to evaluate performance and the effectiveness of management actions. Marine protected areas (MPAs) - possibly set up in networks - constitute a key component in EB-MSM policies and practices and have been applied as a cornerstone in conservation of marine biodiversity, management of fish populations, development of coastal tourism, etc. Moreover, MPA experiences have provided methods and concepts (such as zoning) to a wider EB-MSM context. The assignment of values to bio-physical features of the marine environment allows the direct assessment of related management choices and may assist EB-MSM.
A range of monetary valuation techniques have been proposed to reduce attributes of goods and services to a single metric. However, in the marine environment such an approach is often over simplistic, and thus less reductive techniques may be necessary. Rather than producing a single metric, the results of non-monetary assessments guide policy allowing weight to be given as necessary to potential areas of conflict and consensus.
Strategies to take into account climate change effects and geohazard risks in EB-MSM have been applied or proposed worldwide. EB-MSM regimes must be alert to such risks and flexible to account for changes.
Source: S. Katsanevakis, V. Stelzenmüller, A. South, T.K. Sorensen, P.J.S. Jones, S. Kerr,
F. Badalamenti, C. Anagnostou, P. Breen, G. Chust, G. D'Anna, M. Duijn, T. Filatova, F. Fiorentino, H. Hulsman, K. Johnson, A.P. Karageorgis, I. Kroencke, S. Mirto, C. Pipitone, S. Portelli, W. Qiu, H. Reiss, D. Sakellariou, M. Salomidi, L. van Hoof, V. Vassilopoulou, T.V. Fernandez, S. Voge, A. Weber, A. Zenetos and R. ter Hofstede (2011); “Ecosystem-based marine spatial management: review of concepts, policies, tools, and critical issues”, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in: Ocean & Coastal Management; Received: 6 May 2011; Revised: 10 August 2011; Accepted: 6 September 2011; Available online under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.09.002.
Effectively communicating the complexity of climate change to the public is an important goal for the climate change research community, particularly for those of us who receive public funds. The challenge of communicating the science of climate change will be reduced if climate change researchers consider the links between personality types, communication tendencies and learning preferences. Jungian personality type is one of many factors related to an individual’s preferred style of taking in and processing information, i.e., preferred communication style. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Jungian personality type profile of interdisciplinary, early career climate researchers is significantly different from that of the general population in the United States. In particular, Ph.D. climate researchers tend towards Intuition and focus on theories and the “big picture”, while the U.S. general population tends towards Sensing and focuses on concrete examples and experience. There are other differences as well in the way the general public as a group prefers to take in information, make decisions, and deal with the outer world, compared with the average interdisciplinary climate scientist. These differences have important implications for communication between these two groups. We suggest that climate researchers will be more effective in conveying their messages if they are aware of their own personality type and potential differences in preferred learning and communication styles between themselves and the general public (and other specific audiences), and use this knowledge to more effectively target their audience.
Keywords: Climate researchers; General public; Effective communication; Jungian personality type; Communication tendencies; Learning preferences.
Source: C. S. Weiler, J. K. Keller and C. Olex (2011); “Personality type differences between Ph.D. climate researchers and the general public: implications for effective communication”, Climatic Change; Received: 27 August 2009; Accepted: 28 July 2011; Published online: 2 September 2011, under DOI: 10.1007/s10584-011-0205-7.
Recently there has been an effort to put in practice integrated management plans in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) not only because of their high natural and cultural importance but also due to usual conflicts related to local activities. These plans should include the use of adaptive sustainability indicators that reflect stakeholder concerns, and community interests, allowing a better assessment, management and reporting. An adequate set of indicators for the MPAs should help their managers to improve management policies in order to achieve better decision-making processes. This study aimed to develop a set of adaptive-participative sustainability indicators (SDIs) for the assessment, management and reporting of MPAs that include, throughout the process, the participation of local stakeholders at all levels, integrating the stakeholder knowledge and perceptions about the SDIs meaning and a self-assessment of the SDIs state produced also by the stakeholders. The proposed approach was tested in Luiz Saldanha's Marine Park, located in South East of Portugal between the municipalities of Sesimbra and Setúbal. The framework to design the SDIs comprised four phases: i) an international analysis of SDIs sets for coastal zones and MPAs; ii) a participatory process, where the stakeholders had the possibility to state their concerns through an online and face-to-face questionnaire surveys about the strengths and weaknesses of the MPAs; iii) an analysis conducted by a team of experts to reach a set of indicators that include the main relevant aspects of environmental, socio-economic, and governance issues, taking into account the information from the first two phases; and iv) a workshop and questionnaires held to assess the stakeholders' global views and perception about the selected set of indicators and each indicator's relative importance. This study showed the importance of a dynamic participative process involving the local stakeholders. It is concluded that this methodology allows a better understanding of each indicator by the local stakeholders and how it could respond to their concerns. It should also help the MPAs managers, to define the most suitable management actions and monitor the management plan itself.
Keywords: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs); Sustainability indicators; Public participation; Stakeholder engagement; Management; Perceptions; Communication.
Source: A.S. Marques, T.B. Ramos, S. Caeiro and M.H. Costa (2011); “Adaptive-participative
sustainability indicators in Marine Protected Areas: Design and communication”, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in: Ocean & Coastal Management; Received: 14 April 2011; Revised: 18 July 2011; Accepted: 24 July 2011; Available online: 17 August 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.07.007.