Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Sediment management is becoming a critical issue around the world, particularly where the development of Harbor facilities, the conservation of coastal environments and needs of tourism compete for sustainable use of sediment resources. In order to apply an Integrated Coastal Zone Management policy, new approaches for management of the dredged harbor material need to be considered by the scientific community and local stakeholders. The information contained in the Italian Ministry of the Environment Acts related to dredging of Carrara Harbor determined the sediment volume dredged between 1993 and 2008 (849,500 m3) and allows us to estimate an average rate of material dredged from the harbor mouth (10,000–13,000 m3/yr). Different management options were chosen by the authorities based on the contamination level of dredged sediment: nourishment (344,500 m3), offshore dumping (305,000 m3), disposal in landfill (10,000 m3) or in Confined Disposal Facilities (215,000 m3). The present study’s goal is to determine the sedimentary budget of the Apuo-Versilian coast and to use the result to guide a compensation strategy to reduce the sediment deficit caused by the disposal of sediments out of the sand-sharing system. In particular, the present study provides a detailed reference frame that can lead to adopt a compensation strategy to balance the eroding evolutionary trend of the coastline adjacent to shallow water dredging areas. The procedure described in the paper is a policy initiative based on scientific results and could provide a model for other jurisdictions developing their own sediment quantitative estimation within an ICZM approach and a sustainable development of sedimentary resource’s management.
Keywords: Integrated coastal zone management; Marina di Carrara Harbor; Sediment managing; Policy making.
Source: S. Cappucci, D. Scarcella, L. Rossi and A. Taramelli (2011); “Integrated coastal zone management at Marina di Carrara Harbor: sediment management and policy making”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 54, Issue 4, April 2011, Pages 277-289; Available Online: 21 December 2010, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.12.006.
A dynamic one-dimensional model of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along a coastline has been developed to investigate their impact on fish stocks and landings over time. The model is basically a cellular automaton implemented with a spreadsheet and is used to trace stocks and landings from the initiation of the MPA for several years under a set of three different scenarios for the allocation of fishing effort. In all cases landings decline as soon as part of the coastline is protected, but in every case they recover to their original level and above. The time it takes for landings to recover ranges from four to nine years and with two small MPAs (several small) the recovery is faster than with one large one of the same spatial extent (single large). These results indicate that although fishery closures through an MPA will undoubtedly have an immediate adverse impact on the fishing industry, the chances of full recovery after several years are good, and both the fishery and the fish stocks will benefit in the long run. Further, our model provides a null model on the impacts over time of MPAs that may iteratively be compared with real cases that have biological and social variables.
Keywords: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs); Impact; Fish stocks; Landings; A null model.
Source: W. Silvert and A. Moustakas (2011); “The impacts over time of marine protected areas: A null model”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 54, Issue 4, April 2011, Pages 312-317; Available Online: 9 January 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.12.011.
Fisheries management around the world has experimented with regulations to promote privatization, in order to reach such multifaceted goals as ending overfishing and reducing economic inefficiencies. This review surveys a wide range of empirical experiences in different contexts around the world to help provide a fuller picture of potential and sometimes disparate consequences from privatization in general and new ways of organizing around fishing that can follow in the wake of such measures. Looking at the many different participants in the fishing industry - from crew, small-boat owners, to households and communities - as well as the diverse socio-cultural contexts in which fishing takes place, enables a better understanding of who and what is impacted, how they are impacted, why and with what further consequences, such that communities come to be seen less oppositional to economy, but rather constituted by multiple scalar processes and by economic relations comprising different motivations and behaviors.
Keywords: Fisheries management; Privatization; Social impacts; Fishing communities.
Source: J. Olson (2011); “Understanding and contextualizing social impacts from the privatization of fisheries: An overview”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript; Received: 31 March 2010; Revised: 2 February 2011; Accepted: 12 February 2011; Available Online: 19 February 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.02.002
Advances in sensor design and data analysis techniques are making remote sensing systems practical and attractive for use in research and management of coastal ecosystems, such as wetlands, estuaries, and coral reefs. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagers are available for mapping coastal land cover, concentrations of organic/inorganic suspended particles, and dissolved substances in coastal waters. Thermal infrared scanners can map sea surface temperatures accurately and chart coastal currents, while microwave radiometers can measure ocean salinity, soil moisture, and other hydrologic parameters. Radar imagers, scatterometers, and altimeters provide information on ocean waves, ocean winds, sea surface height, and coastal currents, which strongly influence coastal ecosystems. Using airborne light detecting and ranging systems, one can produce bathymetric maps, even in moderately turbid coastal waters. Since coastal ecosystems have high spatial complexity and temporal variability, they frequently have to be observed from both satellite and aircraft in order to obtain the required spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. A reliable field data collection approach using ships, buoys, and field instruments with a valid sampling scheme is required to calibrate and validate the remotely sensed information. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of practical remote sensing techniques that can be used in studies of coastal ecosystems.
Source: V. Klemas (2011); “Remote Sensing Techniques for Studying Coastal Ecosystems: An Overview”, Journal of Coastal Research, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 2 – 17. Received: 13 July 2010; Accepted: 10 August 2010; Published Online: 8 November 2010, under DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-10-00103.1