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Priority actions : Soil erosion

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PAP/RAC. 2005. Report of the Regional Workshop to Present PAP/RAC - FAO Experiences in Combating Land Degradation in Mediterranean Coastal Areas (Rome, October 10 - 12, 2005). Split: PAP/RAC. pp 28.

(Download Rome Workshop Report-English.pdf / 137 KB)


Aboulabbes O., Merzouk, A. et Benchekroun, F. 2005. Application des Directives CAR/PAP pour la formulation d’un programme de gestion de contrôle de l’érosion et de la désertification - Cas du bassin versant de Beni Boufrah. Split: CAR/PAP. pp iii + 55

(Download Cas du bassin versant de Beni Boufrah.pdf / 1.7 MB)


Rafla A., Sadok A. et Hédi, H. 2005. Application des Directives CAR/PAP pour la formulation d’un programme de gestion de contrôle de l’érosion et de la désertification - Cas du bassin versant de l’Oued Rmel. Split: CAR/PAP. pp iii + 72

(Download Cas du bassin versant de l’Oued Rmel.pdf / 1.29 MB)


Bouzenoune, A., Mahrour, M. et Zellouf, K. 2005. Application des Directives CAR/PAP pour la formulation d’un programme de gestion de contrôle de l’érosion et de la désertification - Cas de la basse vallée de l'Isser. Split: CAR/PAP. pp vii + 50

(Download Cas de la basse vallée de l'Isser.pdf / 554kB)


GRIESBACH, J.C. 2002. Photo-Library on Soil Erosion Processes; Pictorial annex to the Guidelines for mapping of erosion processes. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. xi + 157

(Open page)

The proposed bilingual (English/French) Photo-library is meant as a complementary and technically annotated photography annex to the “Guidelines for mapping and measurement of rainfall-induced erosion processes in the Mediterranean coastal areas”, as introduced above. It is applicable not only for rainfall-induced erosion processes as initially stated, but considers also wind erosion and other degradation processes induced by incorrect land use practices and management; similarly, the flexibility, adaptability and versatility of the mapping criteria and methods might be likely to be applied in other regions of the world. Therefore, it seemed convenient not to limit the illustrating samples contained in the Photo-library exclusively and strictly to Mediterranean coastal areas but to extend them to a broader variety of eco-geographical environments. The Photo-library is a specific response to reiterated suggestions and recommendations of numerous professionals participants in several presentation and training workshops held in Spain, Malta and North African countries. It contains more than 150 color pictures of soil erosion types with short description and will be of great help to soil erosion practitioners around the world.


PAP/RAC, Split, 2002. RAPPORT de l'Atelier sur le contrôle de l'érosion et de la désertification dans les pays de l'Ouest méditerranéen (Rabat, 24-26 septembre 2001).

(Download Soil-Maghreb-rapport1.doc / 100kb)


GIORDANO, A., TANTI, C., LAOUINA, A., CASTILLO SANCHEZ, V.M., MHIRI, A., and DOGAN, O. 2000. National reports on problems and practices of erosion control management in the Mediterranean region/Rapports nationaux sur les problèmes et les pratiques de lutte anti-érosive en région méditerranéenne. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 161. ENG/FRA

This document was prepared by the PAP/RAC, within the priority action entitled "Protection of soil as one of essential components of the protection of the Mediterranean environment". The present document contains the national reports of six countries (Italy, Malta, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey), providing an overview of relevant problems and practices in the region. The basic objectives of the document are: (1) to present a comprehensive and transparent overview of relevant problems and practices; (2) to be used as one of the inputs for the preparation of the Guidelines for Management of Erosion/Desertification Control in the Region, to be finalised and presented during the year 2000; (3) to be used as one of reference documents for the implementation of the project on capacity building, supported by the European Commission; and (4) to be used as background documents for the pre-feasibility study on erosion and desertification in the Mediterranean for the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development.


GIORDANO, A. 2000. Problems and practices of erosion control management in the Mediterranean region: Synthesis of national reports. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 64. ENG

Soil erosion problems are particularly acute in the Mediterranean region where good quality land is scarce and often threaten by development, and where marginal land is either overexploited or abandoned, and it is also one of the most common types of land degradation processes. In order to make a general assessment of the different situations existing in the Mediterranean basin, the PAP/RAC has decided to investigate soil erosion and desertification following three transects: the first is oriented west-east (Spain-Turkey, passing across Italy); second is oriented north-south (Spain-Morocco); and the third is oriented north-south (Italy-Tunisia, including Malta). This report is a synthesis of the national reports submitted by these countries, with the aim of unifying the common points and enlightening the aspects that are peculiar of the different situations. Main topics and issues considered are the following: (1) statement on natural resources depletion; (2) assessment of soil erosion and desertification; (3) legal and institutional arrangements; and (4) erosion prevention, protection and remedial measures.


ENGLISCH, G., GALLACHER, R., GIORDANO, A., GRIESBACH, J. C., JANSEN, L., and PAVASOVIC, A. 2000. Guidelines for erosion and desertification control management with particular reference to Mediterranean coastal areas/Directives pour la gestion de programmes de contrôle d'érosion et de désertification plus partiuclièrement destinées aux zones côtières méditerranéennes. Split: PAP/RAC. pp x + 107. ENG/FRA
((Download SoilErosion.pdf / 2.979 kb)
(Download Directivesderosion.pdf / 3.203 kb)

The basic inputs used for the preparation of these Guidelines were the experience of FAO AGL and PAP/RAC. These Guidelines are a logical and thematic follow up of the Guidelines on mapping and measurement, published in 1997. The geographical coverage of the Guidelines are the Mediterranean coastal area and river basins. The objective of these Guidelines is related to mitigation of erosion and desertification process in the region and preparation of a practical document to be used as tool when formulating and planning relevant control management programmes and projects. The Guidelines are intended for experts and professionals involved in the control management process, experts in relevant sectoral activities, and decision makers responsible for mitigation and control of erosion and desertification phenomena and processes. The Guidelines describe and recommend: (1) an integrated approach to erosion and desertification phenomena in the region; (2) the basic elements of an integrated erosion and desertification control management process; (3) prerequisites for the implementation of the recommended process; and (4) description of the main phases of the process. Due to the complexity of erosion and desertification phenomena, and to the specific national, local, and ecosystem conditions, the Guidelines should be used in a flexible and creative way, primarily as the basis for the formulation and implementation of relevant control management programmes and projects, together with the previously published Guidelines on mapping and measurement. It is assumed that the document is applicable in wider areas of the Mediterranean coastal states, as well as in other regions, taking into account differences of relevant natural processes, management practices and other area-specific conditions.


GRIESBACH, J. C., RUIZ SINOGA, J. D., GIORDANO, A., BERNEY, O., GALLART, F., and ROJO, L. 1997. Guidelines for Mapping and Measurement of Rainfall-induced Erosion Processes in the Mediterranean Coastal Areas/Directives pour la cartographie et la mesure des processus d’érosion hydrique dans les zones côtières méditerranéennes. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xii + 70. ENG/FRA/CRO
(Download SoilErosioneng.pdf / 1.772 kb)
(Download SoilErosionfr.pdf / 1.359 kb)

The present Guidelines are one of the outputs of a co-operative effort of PAP/MAP/UNEP, Ministry of Environment/General Directorate for the Conservation of the Nature (DGCONA) - (Madrid) and FAO/AGL, as well as of professional institutions and authorities of Spain, Tunisia and Turkey, relative to the mapping and measurement of rainfall-induced soil erosion. One of the main reasons for implementing the co-operative project lay in the fact that the hitherto practice on mapping and measurement of erosion processes in the Mediterranean coastal areas involved a number of different, often incomparable methodologies and procedures. Therefore, the need was felt to develop a consolidated methodology to be tested through case studies and eventually adopted for general use. The project was implemented in two components: one dedicated to mapping, and the other dedicated to measurement. The objectives of the Guidelines were: to contribute to a better management of soils and other natural resources and to the mitigation of erosion in the Mediterranean coastal areas; to present the methodology, basis and prerequisites for mapping and measurement of erosion process in the region; and to give basic instructions for performing mapping and measurement. The Guidelines are primarily intended for experts in soil erosion and hydrology with certain experience in erosion mapping and/or measurement for practical use; professionals in land-use planning and management, soil management, agriculture and other field; decision-maker in related files.

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