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Climate variability and change

The science of global climate change has been the focus of an extensive international research effort, particularly over the last 20 years. The results of this research indicate that the climate of the earth is changing and will continue to change through the coming century. Projections for change include an increase in global air temperatures and sea surface temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns and a rise in mean sea level. These changes in climate will occur irrespective of whether global greenhouse emissions are curbed – and to a much greater degree if future emissions are not significantly reduced. Coastal environments and the societies that rely on them will face important challenges as a result of projected changes in climate. This is due to the inherent physical sensitivity of the coastal ecosystem and the traditional socio-economic, cultural and amenity values which humans place on the coastal zone.

The Mediterranean coastal zone: a case for climate change adaptation?

The Mediterranean coastal zone is densely populated and highly urbanised, with 40% of land used for human activity and, although the socio-economic costs of climate change have not yet been fully assessed, major sectors such as agriculture and tourism are predicted to suffer decline from drought, water shortage and increased occurrence of storms. Sea level rise impacts on ports and other coastal infrastructure as well as the coastal erosion are also a concern while recent episodes of human health affected by undesirable organisms such as algal blooming and jellyfish may further multiply as a consequence of higher temperatures. The need for some form of adaptation to climate changes is now a consensus view in light of the inevitability of impacts on already pressurised coastal zones.

The role of the PAP/RAC

PAP/RAC plays a critical role in co-ordination and support of ICZM, which encompasses climate change adaptation. In recognition of this, climate change adaptation has become an important new mandate of the PAP/RAC and has been adopted into its Programme of Work of UNEP/MAP. The key tool for implementation of adaptation initiatives within the Mediterranean Region under the UNEP/MAP structure will be ICZM Protocol. In this context, the challenge that now faces MAP, and in particular the PAP/RAC, is the building of adaptive capacity throughout the region within the existing framework of this Protocol to allow effective mainstreaming at a range of temporal and spatial scales.

                                                                                                                                      © Brian Shipman


Integration of Climatic Variability and Change into national strategies to implement the ICZM Protocol in the Mediterranean (ClimVar & ICZM project)


UNEP/MAP/PAP: Local Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change for Šibenik-Knin County Coastal Zone. Technical report. Priority Actions Programme, Split, 2015.

(Local Vulnerability Assessment for Sibenik.pdf / 1,33 MB)


UNEP/MAP/PAP: Assessment of Costs of Sea-Level Rise in the Republic of Croatia Including Costs and Benefits of Adaptation. Technical report. Priority Actions Programme, Split, 2015.

( Cost of Sea Level Rise_Croatia_ENG.pdf )  / 1,33 MB)



UNEP/MAP/PAP: Procjena moguæih šteta od podizanja razine mora za Republiku Hrvatsku ukljuèujuæi troškove i koristi od prilagodbe. Tehnièko izvješæe. Centar za regionalne aktivnosti Programa prioritetnih akcija (PAP/RAC). Split, 2015.

Cost of Sea Level Rise_Croatia_HR.pdf  / 1,33 MB)

Cost of Sea Level Rise_Croatia_ENG.pdf  / 1,33 MB)


UNEP/MAP/PAP: Assessment of banking and Insurance Practices Related to Climate Variability and Change in the Mediterranean. Priority Actions Programme, Split, 2015.

(Banking and Insurance Practices EN - A4.pdf)  / 1,33 MB) 


PNUE/PAM/PAP : Rapport sur l'analyse socio-économique des impacts de la variabilité et changement climatiques sur les secteurs économiques clés dans les zones côtières tunisiennes. Rapport technique. Split, Programme d'actions prioritaires, 2015.

(  CVC Rapport Tunisie.pdf / 3.15MB)    

UNEP/MAP/PAP: Guidelines for Adapting to Climate Variability and Change along the Mediterranean Coast. Split, Priority Actions Programme, 2015.

(Download CVC Guidelines.pdf / 14,5 MB)

Travers, A., Elrick C. and Kay R. 2010. Position Paper: Climate Change in Coastal Zones of the Mediterranean. Split, Priority Actions Programme, 2010. pp. 73

Download Position Paper: Climate Change


Travers, A., Elrick, C. and Kay, R (2010). Background Paper: Climate Change in Coastal Zones of the Mediterranean. Split, Priority Actions Programme, 2010. pp. 121

Download Background Paper: Climate Change


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