Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The preservation of the environment, culture and local traditions and the participation of people are the aspects to consider for a sustainable tourism. In this regard, tourist sustainability should involve the environmental, socio-economic and cultural dimensions.
The Mediterranean has always been the ideal framework for a sustainable tourism; the existence of environment and the cultural heritage, in particular in coastal areas, is in fact considerable. The beauties of these areas are still today visited by millions of tourists.
Despite the importance of the topic, observing the current regulations, a tool specifically dedicated to the management of the tourism has not been identified. Therefore, an accurate planning is essential to define innovative strategies aim to combine the benefits to the negative impacts of tourism. This paper proposes a Sustainable Tourism Action Plan – STAP – that seeks to combine these two closely linked aspects. In fact, impacts of tourism – alteration of the landscape, resource depletion and air pollution – are incident precisely on touristic destinations. For example, the thematic tourism (rural, natural,...) is particularly oriented towards the sustainability, and it has positive impact on the major tourist pressures (high number of visitors, seasonal concentrations, use of polluting means of transport,...).
More generally, the above Action Plan is aimed to realize an international strategy adaptable to local situations, to promote sustainable development at the national level and to encourage the creation of networks among different Mediterranean coastal areas. The proposed methodological approach has been applied in Liguria, one of the most visited regions in the Mediterranean.
Source: F. Pirlone and I. Spadaro (2017); ”Sustainable Tourism Action Plan In The Mediterranean Coastal Areas”, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 12 (2017), Issue 6, Pages: 995 – 1005; DOI: 10.2495/SDP-V12-N6-995-1005
This is the first study to assess the social costs of marine debris washed ashore and litter left behind by beach visitors along different European coasts. Three identical surveys, including a discrete choice experiment, are implemented at six beaches along different European coastlines: the Mediterranean Sea in Greece, the Black Sea in Bulgaria and the North Sea in the Netherlands. Beach visitors are asked for their experiences with beach litter and their willingness to volunteer in beach clean-up programs and their willingness to pay an entrance fee or increase in local tax to clean up marine litter. Significant differences are found between countries. This has important implications for the size and transferability of the estimated social costs of marine litter across Europe.
Keywords: Marine litter; Beach recreation; Social costs; Choice experiment; Europe.
Source: R. Brouwer, D. Hadzhiyska, C. Ioakeimidis and H. Ouderdorp (2017); “The social costs of marine litter along European coasts”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 138, 15 March 2017, Original Research Article, Pages: 38 – 49; Received: 23 May 2016; Revised: 16 November 2016; Accepted: 7 January 2017; Available Online: 16 January 2017 under DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.01.011
Coastal zone is often vulnerable to natural hazards such as cyclones, storm surges, tsunamis, erosion, accretion, and coastal flooding; and man-made hazards like ports, jetties, seawalls, breakwaters, and groins. These disasters are frequently affecting the shorelines, beaches, and headlands that lead to loss of human life, properties, and natural ecosystems. To prevent further loss in the coastal zone and to conserve the existing natural resources, it is important to map and monitor vulnerable shorelines at frequent time intervals. The current study, conducted over the Northern TN (Tamil Nadu) coast of India, is highly dynamic due to its nature of coast and shoreline changes. The temporal remote sensing data and Survey of India (SOI) topographic maps over the period of 40 years (i.e., 1976–2016) were used to capture shorelines and then the erosion and accretion from the shorelines were assessed by performing the overlay analysis. These geospatial datasets of shorelines were incorporated into WebGIS platform, which was developed and demonstrated using open source software. This latest WebGIS technology allows users to store a large volume of geospatial datasets in the server and access through internet with a web browser that lead to manipulation, visualization, interaction, and dissemination. The results revealed that there were 61 layers, which include district-wise shorelines, erosion, and accretion for Tiruvallur, Chennai, and Kanchipuram. These geospatial datasets in WebGIS showed that the dynamism on the morphological structure of the shorelines, over the Northern TN lost 1,925 ha and gained 1,578 ha due to erosion and accretion, respectively. It is reported that in this study spatial reduction in the coastline may be attributed to natural and anthropogenic activities. However, this research will be useful for various stakeholders, including coastal management authorities to formulate policies and to regulate the coastal development activities.
Source: K. Jayakumar and S. Malarvannan (2016); “Assessment of shoreline changes over the Northern Tamil Nadu Coast, South India using WebGIS techniques”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, December 2016, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages: 477 – 487; First Online: 7 October 2016 under DOI: 10.1007/s11852-016-0461-9
Research into sea-level rise has taken on particular prominence in more recent times owing to the global threat posed by climate change and the fact that mean sea level and temperature remain the key proxies by which we can measure changes to the climate system. Under various climate change scenarios, it has been estimated that the threat posed by the effects of sea-level rise might lead to annual damage costs across Europe on the order of €25 billion by the 2080s. European mean sea-level records are among the best time series data available globally by which to detect the presence of necessary accelerations forecast by physics-based projection models to elevate current rates of global sea-level rise (≈3 mm/y) to anywhere in the vicinity of 10–20 mm/y by 2100. The analysis in this paper is based on a recently developed analytical package titled “msltrend,” specifically designed to enhance estimates of trend, real-time velocity, and acceleration in the relative mean sea-level signal derived from long annual average ocean water level time series. Key findings are that at the 95% confidence level, no consistent or compelling evidence (yet) exists that recent rates of rise are higher or abnormal in the context of the historical records available across Europe, nor is there any evidence that geocentric rates of rise are above the global average. It is likely a further 20 years of data will distinguish whether recent increases are evidence of the onset of climate change–induced acceleration.
Source: P. J. Watson (2017); “Acceleration in European Mean Sea Level? A New Insight Using Improved Tools”, Journal of Coastal Research: Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages: 23 – 38; Received: 31 July 2016; Accepted: 9 August 2016; Revised: 25 September 2016; Published: 21 October 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-16-00134.1