Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Reef HQ Aquarium (Townsville, Australia) pumps its new exhibit seawater from a tidal inlet. This study presents the in-house calibration of a bioassay based on juvenile mysids to do a rapid assessment (presence or absence) of toxicity in the new seawater. Calibration tests were carried out for several substances: copper, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS or SDS), ammonia, antifouling paint, bilge oil from a yacht, oil from a dive compressor, seawater cooling effluent from a commercial ferry vessel, and aquarium tank water. Results were compared with two other bioassays already in use at Reef HQ Aquarium, based on (a) artemia hatched from aquaculture cysts and (b) Vibrio fischeri bacteria (Microtox®). This study determined (a) that the juvenile mysids bioassay yielded meaningful results and was viable operationally, (b) its sensitivity with respect to likely local pollutants, and (c) how it compares in terms of sensitivity with the artemia and the Microtox® bioassays.
Source: T. Severine, T. Sascha, C. Ross, E. Hope, R. Laming (2016); “Bioassay using juvenile mysids for rapid assessment of seawater: A case study from Reef HQ Aquarium (Townsville, Australia)”, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Vol.8(3), pp. 28-41 , March 2016; Received: 3 July 2015; Accepted: 1 February 2016; Published: 31 March 2016; DOI: 10.5897/IJFA2015.0501
Brazil has one of the largest protected areas (PA) systems in the world but just a small fraction is devoted to the protection of marine habitats. The effectiveness and integrity of PA are being challenged and questioned worldwide and this situation is not different in Brazil. Poorly managed PAs are more vulnerable to habitat loss, poaching and other threats. Alarmingly, studies have shown that just a fraction of the current PA can be considered effectively managed. Facing such scenario, studies on the effectiveness of the management of PA - and especially marine PA (MPA)- become essential to enhance the role these areas play in biodiversity conservation, as well as provide useful tools for managers and decision-makers. Using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) methodology, we evaluated the management effectiveness of the largest MPA in Brazil, the Environmental Protected Area Costa dos Corais (APACC, IUCN category V). In a rare opportunity in the context of Brazil’s PA system, we were able to access the management effectiveness of APACC over a 15-year period, tracking progresses, identifying strengthens and weaknesses experienced. The overall management effectiveness of APACC has improved over the last 15 years. Although there were variations, five out of 14 indicators analyzed presented improvements while nine remained stable over the years. Finance was the module that contributed the most for the general improvement of APACC. Contrary to many other PAs worldwide, which face budget restrictions, APACC’s financial situation is currently stable and such stability may have had a positive effect on other management modules, like Infrastructure and Outputs. Research, Monitoring and Evaluation was among modules with slower progress, which is a contradiction considering APACC is amongst the Brazilian MPA with more research. The feedback from researchers is considered poor and most of the research conducted considered not useful for management purposes. Tourism has the highest increase in criticality, being not only the biggest pressure, but also the main threat. Considering that there were improvements in other areas, increasing APACC’s limited staff should be a priority for the coming years. RAPPAM proved to be a quick and easy-to-apply methodology, making it effective for temporal analysis on the management of MPA. However, caution is necessary when analyzing some of RAPPAM results. Frequent changes in the management staff, poor records of the management process and the activities adopted, and incomplete transference of information between staff members inevitably compromises the answers and the overall accuracy. RAPPAM needs in loco validation of the answers and this could be a time consuming process for large PA. For better results, RAPPAM could and should be applied together with other evaluation methods.
Keywords: APA Costa dos Corais; Management effectiveness; Protected areas; RAPPAM.
Source: J. Lustosa Araújo and E. Bernard (2016); “Management effectiveness of a large marine protected area in Northeastern Brazil”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 130, October 2016, Pages 43–49; DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.05.009
Since 2007, the biomass of sardine and anchovy in the NW Mediterranean has remained persistently low, whereas the biomass of the commercially low-valued sprat has exploded. Also, simultaneous decreases in condition, size, and/or age of these populations were observed. Altogether, this resulted in a drop in landings of small pelagics. To understand the amplitude of these events and to provide a baseline scenario against which current changes can be compared, we compiled exceptionally long landing series (1865–2013) of sardine, anchovy, and mackerel for different subregions of the southern French coast. We characterized the fluctuations of these landings and compared these with environmental drivers (sea surface temperature, Rhône river discharge, North Atlantic Oscillation, Western Mediterranean Oscillation—WeMO, and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation—AMO), using different time-series analyses. We also collated historical data to infer qualitative changes in fishing effort over time. A fishing effort related increase in landings was observed around 1962 for all three species, although current sardine landings have dropped below levels observed before this period. Sardine and anchovy landings were, respectively, positively and negatively related to the AMO index and anchovy landings were also positively related to the WeMO. We finished by discussing the potential role of the environmental variables and fishing on long-term fishery landings trends.
Keywords: Anchovy; Fish landings; Gulf of Lions; Historical time series; Mackerel; Sardine.
Source: E. Van Beveren, J-M. Fromentin, T. Rouyer, S. Bonhommeau, P. Brosset, and C. Saraux (2016); “The fisheries history of small pelagics in the Northern Mediterranean”, ICES J. Mar. Sci. (May/June 2016) 73 (6): 1474-1484; Received: 25 August 2015; Revision received: 28 January 2016; Accepted: 3 February 2016; First published online: 16 March 2016; DOI:10.1093/icesjms/fsw023
A 2030 climate and energy policy framework was endorsed by the European Council in 2014. The main elements are a binding 40 % greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target compared to 1990, a renewable energy share of 27 %, and an energy savings target of at least 27 % by 2030. In this paper, we assess the impact of these targets on the European land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) sector using a Europe focused global land use model linked with a detailed forest management model. We show that implementing a 40 % GHG emission reduction target by 2030 may only have a small negative impact on the domestic LULUCF sink if the additional biomass demand for energy is mostly met through ligno-cellulosic energy crops rather than forest removals. However, if the increased biomass demand were met through higher rates of forest harvest removals, a more negative impact on the LULUCF sink could be expected.
Keywords: LULUCF; GHG; European Union; Impacts; Energy and climate targets; 2030.
Source: S. Frank, H. Böttcher, M. Gusti, P. Havlík, G. Klaassen, G. Kindermann and M. Obersteiner (2016); “Dynamics of the land use, land use change, and forestry sink in the European Union: the impacts of energy and climate targets for 2030”, Climatic Change, pp. 1 – 14; Received: 4 December 2014; Accepted: 17 June 2016; First online: 8 July 2016; DOI: 10.1007/s10584-016-1729-7