Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Urban development along the coast of Turkey has attracted large numbers of people to the area, causing an intense and complex situation to develop there and creating numerous problems. Because of the failure of traditional applications for solving such problems, holistic approaches will have to be used to manage these areas along the shores. Although many pilot projects have already been undertaken, gaps in the laws and problems involving private property have prevented any of these from moving forward. In Turkey, conflicts have existed for many years between the public and the private owners of property in the areas along the coast. However, until recently, no serious issues had arisen regarding the removal of marine areas from private ownership, in terms of legal regulations and the general principles of international law. This study examines the different approaches that were taken to remove pertinent areas from private ownership and to decrease the burden of compensation which results from the cancellation of the land titles. One of these methods is based on the approach of the Modified Land Readjustment. This approach, which draws on its own resources and provides an innovative solution, would solve the problems of property conflicts between the public and the individuals, except for the financial compensation. This method would also make an important contribution to decisions about management tools, planning and the application phase in the sustainable management of the coastal areas as it is outlined in the Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
Source: B. Uzun and N. Celik (2014); “Sustainable management of coastal lands: A new approach for Turkish coasts”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 95, July 2014, Pages 53 – 62; Available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.010
Beach awards such as the European Blue Flag are increasingly adopted in many countries as an environmental brand to promote better beach management and encourage tourism. However, the validity of the Blue Flag award has been criticized in the literature, and research shows that the award is still not widely known and has marginal influence on tourists' beach selection. This study, conducted at six popular South African beaches, three with and three without Blue Flag status, investigated awareness and evaluation of the Blue Flag award among 579 beachgoers. Results from a structured questionnaire showed that over half of the participants, mostly people on the Blue Flag beaches, knew about the Blue Flag award and its criteria; however, approximately one-third of the participants were unaware of it. Participants tended to be less tolerant of supposed water-quality degradation than the loss of the Blue Flag status, although an exception was made for Margate Beach, where people were less tolerant of a hypothetical loss of Blue Flag status. Although the participants' evaluation of the Blue Flag award was generally positive, for most it was not their main reason for visiting a beach. In the light of these findings, a more coherent implementation of the Blue Flag award and better information propagation in its regard are recommended for South African beaches.
Keywords: Blue Flag Award; South Africa; Beachgoers; Beach management; Awareness and evaluation.
Source: S. Lucrezi and P. van der Merwe (2014); “Beachgoers' awareness and evaluation of the Blue Flag Award in South Africa”, Journal of Coastal Research In Press, Online Ahead of Print; Received: 12 August 2013; Accepted: 11 September 2013; Published Online: 2 January 2014; Available Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-13-00159.1
Coastal inundation as a result of global sea-level rise and storm surge events is expected to affect many coastal regions and settlements. Adaptation is widely accepted as necessary for managing inundation risk. However, managing inundation risk is inherently contentious because of many uncertainties and because a large number of stakeholder interests and values are mobilised. For these reasons, among others, adaptation progress in many countries has been slow. Despite progress in adaptation research, a critical knowledge gap remains regarding the appropriateness and applicability of various adaptation options, including their transferability between different coastal settings. We review the international literature on coastal adaptation options (including options to defend, accommodate, or retreat) to manage inundation risk, focusing on developed, liberal economies of Western Europe, North America, the U.K., Australia, and New Zealand. In doing so, we identify the favoured strategies adopted by these nations, probe the influence of physical and institutional context on the selection of these options, and identify what lessons might be exchanged or future directions inferred. The review places particular emphasis on the Australian experience as a comparative device to highlight some important distinctions. These distinctions focus on how government responsibility is exercised, including the degree of centralisation; the “fit” of options to local coastal environments and social values (i.e. their suitability and acceptability); and the transferability of different adaptation options in international contexts.
Keywords: Managing inundation risk; Coastal adaptation options; Coastal communities; Australian experience; Global lessons.
Source: B. P. Harman, S. Heyenga, B. M. Taylor and C. S. Fletcher (2013); “Global Lessons for Adapting Coastal Communities to Protect against Storm Surge Inundation”, Journal of Coastal Research In-Press, Online Ahead of Print; Received: 22 April 2013; Accepted: 21 August 2013; Final version received: 18 October 2013; Revised: 18 October 2013; Published Online: 18 November 2013; Available Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-13-00095.1
Climate change is frequently touted as the biggest development challenge that faces humanity. Such rhetoric may be distracting from other development challenges which need to be addressed simultaneously with climate change. This paper uses the case study of small island developing states (SIDS) affected by climate change to explore how focusing on climate change can depoliticise the challenges that they face. Three linked points of depoliticisation through climate change are exemplified: emphasising the hazard, avoiding other long-term development challenges, and shifting focus away from opportunities for reducing vulnerability, including during community reconstruction. Examples cover scientific and policy discussions, from inside and external to SIDS. Links are made with migration narratives, especially learning from the past and the importance of not rebuilding communities with the same vulnerabilities as before. The fundamental challenge is not so much addressing the hazard of climate change per se, but why SIDS peoples often do not have the resources or options to address climate change and other development challenges themselves. In this regard, climate change brings little that is new to SIDS which continue to be marginalised.
Keywords: SIDS; Small island developing states; Climate change; Vulnerability; Migration.
Source: I. Kelman (2013); “No change from climate change: vulnerability and small island developing states”, The Geographical Journal, Volume 180, Issue 2, Pages 120 – 129, June 2014; First Published Online: 23 October 2013; Available Online under DOI: 10.1111/geoj.12019