Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Both tourism and oil production have some positive and negative socio-economic, cultural and environmental impacts on communities and economies. The coastal communities of Port au Port, Lark Harbour and Sally’s Cove in Western Newfoundland, Canada are very much conscious of these impacts. In recent months, the communities have been confronted with a major challenge to either resist or welcome oil companies to drill oil using a technique known as hydraulic fracturing or ‘fracking’. Obviously, the communities are more worried about the negative impacts that fracking, if introduced, could have on their living conditions and local economies. This paper explores and describes the growth of tourism in Western Newfoundland and the aforementioned three communities and discusses the potential impacts that fracking could have on the tourism industry. The main research finding is that the strong objection to fracking by the coastal communities is justified in the knowledge that sustainable tourism depends on efficient and environmentally-friendly management of both natural and cultural resources, and the fact that tourism in Newfoundland and Labrador has been growing steadily and the three coastal communities modestly epitomize this trend. There are also urgent needs for more scientific education and objective knowledge about fracking, especially the positive impact it could have on tourism and other sectors of Western Newfoundland’s economy.
Source: W. Brake and E. Addo (2014); “Tourism and 'Fracking' in Western Newfoundland: Interests and Anxieties of Coastal Communities and Companies in the Context of Sustainable Tourism”, International Journal of Marine Science, 2014, Volume 4, No. 2; Received: 21 September 2013; Accepted: 30 October 2013; Published: 4 January 2014; DOI: 10.5376/ijms.2014.04.0002
Landscapes are an extremely important resource for tourism and quality of life so there is a need to classify and manage landscapes. In the implementation of visual impact assessment, Bozcaada in the province of Çanakkale was selected as the sample area in the research. An analytical and perceptual method covering physical relationships of user-environment was applied in the research. Initially, the landscape beauty was evaluated according to the survey of observer preferences. Secondly, the landscape elements and attributes were weighted. Finally, regression and correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between weighted landscape attributes and survey results. There were 9 panels, each containing 16 photos, and 210 participants ranked the best 4 and worst 4 photos of each panel. The results showed that degree of wilderness, the presence of negative man-made elements, and percentage of land covered by vegetation decreased the visual quality in Bozcaada. Furthermore, it was determined that visual quality increased with the presence of well-preserved man-made elements, scale, harmony, and colour contrast. The research revealed which landscape elements and attributes are important in landscape design.
Source: T. Cengiz (2014); “Visual Quality Method in Assessing Landscape Characteristics: Case Study of Bozcaada Island”, Journal of Coastal Research, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp. 319 – 327; Received: 14 December 2011; Accepted: 1 April 2012; Revised: 13 August 2012; http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-11-00230.1
Local communities across the Pacific Island region have long prepared for and managed extreme weather events. Strategies to cope with extreme weather, particularly cyclones and droughts, have involved using particular planting techniques, initiating innovative water storage practices, and employing food preservation tactics to survive. These local experiences and knowledge have been passed on between generations through stories and sharing practical know-how; however, very little formal documentation has transpired to date. This research attempts to document and synthesis these experiences and knowledge to safeguard them through written accounts but also demonstrate how Pacific communities can provide valuable, appropriate and effective strategies to prepare for and respond to extreme weather events. In-depth interviews (n = 40) were conducted with community members from three villages in Fiji (Naselesele, Qeleni and Yanuca) and three villages in Vanuatu (Piliura, Tassiriki and Lonamilo). While typically missing from community vulnerability and risk assessments in the Pacific, local experiences and knowledge are a core strength in enhancing adaptive capacity and planning community-based activities.
Keywords: Extreme weather; Pacific local communities; Experiences.
Source: K. E. McNamara and S. S. Prasad (2014); “Coping with extreme weather: communities in Fiji and Vanuatu share their experiences and knowledge”, Climatic Change Journal, March 2014, Volume 123, Issue 2, pp. 121-132; http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-013-1047-2
This paper explores co-ordination and co-operation between different levels of governance in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy. Both policies aim at overcoming the previous sectoral organization of the marine policy field by establishing integrated approaches. As in the EU and the US, competencies in marine policies are shared between different levels of governance, the proper implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the National Ocean Policy to large parts depends on the common efforts of all levels involved. In this submission, the co-management approach is used to analyze the co-ordinative procedures throughout the policy processes in the EU and the US. It derives four criteria for effective shared management from the literature, which are then applied to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the National Ocean Policy. It appears that the EU and the US promote different consensus-oriented procedures: while in the EU, they are mainly part of the decision-making phase, in the US, they are mostly subsequent to the National Ocean Policy's adoption.
Keywords: European Marine Strategy Framework Directive; US National Ocean Policy; EU; Co-ordination and co-operation.
Source: N. Maier (2014); “Co-ordination and co-operation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 92, May 2014, pp. 1-8; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.01.014