Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
This research highlights the spatial planning approach for coastal sustainability and adaptation to climate change. The dilemma of spatial planning in a dynamic and complex coastal environment as well as the establishment of a coastal buffer zone as an adaptation measure for climate change are elaborated upon. In particular, this study outlines the limitations of two of the traditional approaches used for spatial planning (optimization and simulation) and the opportunities that present themselves when combining both models for coastal zone planning. As a result, this study has developed an integrated modeling framework called MOPSD (Multi-Objective Programming and System Dynamic) that can be used for spatial land use planning in coastal areas. The case study is Cijin Island, located next to the Kaohsiung harbor, Taiwan; this location demonstrates that the proposed MOPSD modeling approach generates superior results when compared to each of the two traditional methods. This is mainly attributed to the consideration of deterministic and dynamic characteristics when evaluating the climate change adaptation at risk of coastal erosion.
Keywords: Integrated spatial planning model; Climate change adaptation; Coastal zone; Multi-Objective Programming and System Dynamic (MOPSD) Model; Sustainable coastal development.
Source: T-T. Ko and Y-C. Chang (2012); “An integrated spatial planning model for climate change adaptation in coastal zones”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 66, September 2012, Pages 36 – 45; Available online: 2 June 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.05.021.
When designing a new management strategy, it is widely acknowledged that different stakeholders' objectives are important, though their identification and satisfaction is often difficult to achieve. In this paper, a win–win fishery management strategy is outlined for the Marine Protected Area of the Asinara Island, in Sardinia, one of the oldest MPA in Italy. To this aim, a discrete choice experiment approach to elicit preferences is implemented. A graphical variant questionnaire, that is a block chart, is also presented in order to facilitate stakeholders' responses. The empirical findings show, that, overall the Asinara stakeholders would prefer to increase sustainable yields of commercial species, reduce inner conflicts and increase profits from the fishery.
Keywords: Marine Protected Area (MPA) strategy; stakeholders; Asinara island, Sardinia.
Source: M. Pulina and M. Meleddu (2012); “Defining a marine protected area strategy: A stakeholder perspective”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 66, September 2012, Pages 46 – 55; Available online: 17 May 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.05.003.
Marine management is never an exclusively science-based endeavour. Putting the concept of ecosystem-based management (EBM) into practice requires building up a collective vision for Europe’s regional seas where the values and views of different groups of stakeholders are indentified and integrated. To date, such integration is lacking and Europe’s marine policy is mostly driven by scientific and technical advice with little input from citizens and stakeholders. Here we report an overview of people’s perceptions and views regarding marine environmental issues, where the opinions of the general population and a group of marine experts were analysed and compared. Results based on 735 face-to-face interviews conducted in the Azores archipelago (north-eastern mid-Atlantic) showed significant differences among experts and public opinion regarding drivers of change, marine pressures and management priorities. The survey also showed that the public was poorly informed about marine protected areas (MPAs) and eco-labelling schemes (ELSs). Taken together these results build upon the widely held perception that there is a gap between what is known among the scientific community and what the public know and understand about the marine environment, and emphasise the importance of involving the public, scientists and other stakeholders in all stages of the marine management process. If EBM is to move forward as a successful public policy more participatory and adaptive approaches are required to enhance citizen and stakeholder engagement, building up social capital and collaborative partnerships towards a more effective and equitable management of Europe’s regional seas.
Keywords: Ecosystem-based management; Marine management; Public participation; Azores islands; Northeast Atlantic; Local residents; Marine experts.
Source: A. Ressurreição, A. Simas, R. S. Santos and F. Porteiro (2012); “Resident and expert opinions on marine related issues: implications for the ecosystem approach”, Ocean & Coastal Management”, In Press, Accepted Manuscript to appear in: Ocean & Coastal Management; Available online: 17 September 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.09.002.
A strategy for use of vegetation to control soil erosion has been developed that is spatially targeted at hotspots and flow pathways in the landscape. It is based on the premise that most of the soil erosion in semi-arid areas is by water erosion along specific flow lines. Soil is removed from fields and transported downslope and into channels if the connectivity of flow and sediment pathways is high, causing offsite problems as well as loss of agricultural productivity. Vegetation can reduce that connectivity by decreasing erosion and increasing sedimentation. The research combines mapping and analysis of the connectivity pathways and erosion hotspots with analysis of the most effective indigenous plants to control erosion and suited to the particular landscape position and environment. The crucial innovative element is the combination of physical process understanding with plant ecology, and its spatial application. The scheme has been developed by research in the driest part of the European Mediterranean region, in SE Spain, and examples of application strategies are illustrated. It is particularly suited to upland rain-fed agricultural areas on soft rocks, which are highly vulnerable to land degradation. Recommendations are provided on locations for planting or encouraging vegetation growth and on suitable species. The spatially targeted strategies apply vegetation to the critical locations to intervene in the pathways and this minimal intervention approach still allows cultivation of fields. The methods proposed can form the basis for sustainable catchment management to combat soil erosion and desertification.
Source: J. Hooke and P. Sandercock (2012); “Use of vegetation to combat desertification and land degradation: Recommendations and guidelines for spatial strategies in Mediterranean lands”, Landscape & Urban Planning, Volume 107, Issue 4, 30 September 2012, Pages 389 – 400; Received in revised form: 12 July 2012; Accepted: 16 July 2012; Available online: 5 August 2012.