Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Over the last four decades the development of frameworks for integrated coastal management (ICM) and models for ICM implementation have received much attention from researchers and practitioners alike. This has resulted in a proliferation of implementation models, many of which embody results-based approaches, with the primary focus being on identifying coastal issues and then addressing these by implementing specific projects or programmes. Despite explicitly recognising the importance of cooperative governance early on, ICM implementation still faces the challenge that governance systems remain largely sector-based. In this paper we explore the implementation of ICM within a sector-based governance system in South Africa. First, we draw on international best practice and situated knowledge to develop a prototype ICM implementation model designed to accommodate sector-based programmes within an overarching ecosystem-based approach. Next, we assess the usability of the prototype and the compatibility with a sector-based governance system using empirical information derived from South Africa's National Programme of Action to protect the marine environment from land-based activities. We conclude that integrated management of the coast is possible in a sector-based governance system and propose the ICM implementation model developed in this paper as a potentially suitable model for countries with similar coastal management milieus to South Africa.
Keywords: Integrated Coastal Management (ICM); Sector-based governance system; South Africa.
Source: S. Taljaard, J.H. Slinger, P.D. Morant, A.K. Theron, L. van Niekerk and J. van der Merwe (2012); “Implementing integrated coastal management in a sector-based governance system”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 67, October 2012, Pages 39-53; Available online 21 June 2012.
With the broad aim of promoting the essential interdisciplinary research on sustainable development and contributing to the development of an operational bio-economic analysis, the present paper attempts to evaluate four representative approaches to Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in the context of coastal ecosystems. These approaches are non-declining utility per capita, preservation of all the existing natural capital, preservation of the biological crucial levels, and conservation of the critical natural capital. They reflect contemporary dialogue and especially the tension between the schools of strong and weak sustainability. The evaluation was performed by the international community of coastal experts through responses to a questionnaire survey (n=99).
It emerges that those approaches to ESD that integrate operational criteria and principles from natural sciences within the consideration of socioeconomic welfare are evaluated as more functional as well as scientifically more appropriate for defining the target of ESD in coastal ecosystems.
Source: G. Mavrommati and C. Richardson (2012); “Experts’ evaluation of concepts of ecologically sustainable development applied to coastal ecosystems”; Accepted Manuscript to appear in: Ocean and Coastal Management (2012); Available online: 21 July 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.07.016.
In a recent article, Cooper and Lemckert discussed the opportunity to experience extreme sea level rise in Gold Coast, Australia. The authors outlined the potential impacts of 1m, 2m and 5m potential sea level rise (SLR) on the Gold Coast assuming that current occurrences of surges, cyclones and rainfall are superimposed on these. The suggestion from their contribution was that planning a 2m SLR might just be accommodated and without it a 1m SLR could not. The study unfortunately focuses on the sea level rise issue actually not that dramatic in a region conversely periodically affected by severe floods still far from being properly addressed. At the current rate of rise of sea levels for the region, properly assessed at about 1 mm/year with no detectable component of acceleration in perfect agreement with the worldwide average, the 1m, 2m and 5m scenarios may be projected very far from now in time and therefore should not be of concern now. This comment holds for all the papers with the unrealistic expectation of SLR up to 5 m within few years.
Keywords: Sea level rise; Climate change.
Source: A.A. Boretti (2012); “Discussion of J.A.G. Cooper, C. Lemckert, Extreme sea level rise and adaptation options for coastal resort cities: A qualitative assessment from the Gold Coast, Australia”, Ocean & Coastal Management (2012), In Press, Accepted Manuscript to appear in: Ocean and Coastal Management (2012); Available online: 18 April 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.05.031.
Indonesia and Brazil, two large countries with long coastlines, have seen dramatic political changes over past decades. The New Constitution of 1988 in Brazil and the reform movement of 1998 in Indonesia both marked the beginning of a new political era in the respective countries. An important pillar of this was the decentralization of authority. At the same time, the notion of integrated coastal management found its way into national legislation and policies. Key terms during these new eras in both Brazil and Indonesia are decentralization, participation, democratization and, in the context of coastal management, integration. Despite the enactment of promising new laws and policies, and despite local examples of success, implementation still faces a number of challenges in both countries. Inefficiencies and weaknesses of the institutional and legal frameworks have resulted in local mismanagement and misappropriation, a high degree of non-compliance, conflicts between resource users and tension and mistrust between different levels and sections of government. Moreover, the disempowered situation of poorer local ecosystem users largely continues. We argue here that for coastal management to become socially more just and environmentally more benign, local communities need to be better informed, capacitated and officially supported in their quest to protect the ecosystems which their livelihoods depend on. Local ecosystem users' social energies and capacities may be essential to respond to ecosystem stakeholders which do not share local ecosystem users' sustainability agendas.
Keywords: Decentralization; Participation; Integrated Coastal Management; Policy lessons; Brazil; Indonesia
Source: L. Wever, M. Glaser, P. Gorris and D. Ferrol-Schulte (2012); “Decentralization and participation in integrated coastal management: Policy lessons from Brazil and Indonesia”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 66, September 2012, Pages 63–72; Available online: 11 May 2012.