Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The sustainability in the marine and coastal environment was conceptualized significantly since the Earth Summit in 1992 where Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) was proposed as one of the solutions that can support the decision makers to work together and provide decisive actions for the better coastal management. A right balance between the socio-economic growth and the environmental protection is the most important goal in the coastal management. In order to achieve the goal, a framework-based strategy, financial planning and policy enforcement must be implemented in the coastal management.
Indonesia as one of the archipelagic states has adopted this concept within two Indonesian cooperation laws which were intended to enable the Indonesian government to manage the coastal areas more responsibly and accountably in the aim for the improved environment for future generations. Since the endorsement of those laws, however, the implementation has been lagging and the Indonesia government's focus is rather on the land-based development despite the consequence of the negligence in the coastal management. This is evident in the impact on the coastal environment that is caused by rapid and ill-planned developments in Indonesian coastal regions. As a result, Indonesia already lost four islands associated with Seribu Islands by 1999. It proves that Seribu Islands lack in the policy enforcement and were unnoticed by both the central government and the local government.
This paper aims to assess the ecological vulnerability with a focus on coral reefs in Seribu Islands using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies. From the study results, it can be summarized that the urban pressures and pollutants from four main rivers in Jakarta Bay and Banten Province played a significant role in the environmental degradation. Most of the islands associated with Seribu Islands are at risk, if the urban development continues. The vulnerability analysis of Seribu Islands can assist the decision makers to prepare pivotal actions in order to adapt the changes and develop essential recovery programs for the region.
Source: A.R. Farhan and S. Lim (2012); “Vulnerability assessment of ecological conditions in Seribu Islands, Indonesia”, Original research article, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 65, September 2012, Pages 1-14; Available online: 7 May 2012, under DOI: 0.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.015.
This research highlights the spatial planning approach for coastal sustainability and adaptation to climate change. The dilemma of spatial planning in a dynamic and complex coastal environment as well as the establishment of a coastal buffer zone as an adaptation measure for climate change are elaborated upon. In particular, this study outlines the limitations of two of the traditional approaches used for spatial planning (optimization and simulation) and the opportunities that present themselves when combining both models for coastal zone planning. As a result, this study has developed an integrated modelling framework called MOPSD (Multi-Objective Programming and System Dynamic) that can be used for spatial land use planning in coastal areas. The case study is Cijin Island, located next to the Kaohsiung harbor, Taiwan; this location demonstrates that the proposed MOPSD modelling approach generates superior results when compared to each of the two traditional methods. This is mainly attributed to the consideration of deterministic and dynamic characteristics when evaluating the climate change adaptation at risk of coastal erosion.
Source: T.T. Ko and Y.C. Chang (2012); “An integrated spatial planning model for climate change adaptation in coastal zones”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 66, September 2012, Pages 36-45; Available online: 2 June 2012, under DOI: 0.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.05.021.
The primary role of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management model was to arbitrate conflicts between stakeholders in a living and natural resource environment characterized by a common property and open access doctrine. A chronology of events describes how the development and acceptance of an ecosystems approach policy began to converge and coincide with the spread and development of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Those organizations that gave representation to the conservation ethic became internationally recognized as surrogate natural resource ‘users’, the interests of which possessed commonality with all stakeholder interests in general. The tenants of conservation policy were therefore largely employed to decide the merits of disputes over ocean and coastal resources.
In the 1990s, scientists created a forum to debate, better define, and institutionalize a sound basis for ecosystem management theory and practice. Protocols were developed that embedded science in living and natural resources planning and management. These protocols were shaped and adopted to serve an evermore contemporary Integrated Coastal Zone Management model. Improvements in methodology include the use of adaptive management, ecological modelling and monitoring, appropriate temporal and spatial scales, salient indicators, and stakeholder participation. This contemporary approach is dependent upon recognizing the benefits inherent in utilizing instruments capable of managing resources on a holistic level.
Bioregional planning and zoning accommodate the successful management of resources on this level. It is a direct outcome of the convergence of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the ecosystems approach. Bioregional zoning schemes are capable of traversing the private property and common property doctrines that define the respective terrestrial and aquatic environments of the coastal zone.
A comparative case study of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Belize Marine Protected Area Program is included as an annex, the analysis of which is predicated upon the principles espoused in the literature.
Keywords: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM); Ecosystems approach policy; Converge; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park; Belize Marine Protected Area Program.
Source: M.F. Forst (2009); “The convergence of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the ecosystems approach“, Ocean & Coastal Management, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 294-306; Available online: 3 May 2009, under DOI: 0.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.03.007.
It is stated in the legislation related to the management of coastal areas, particularly in the Coastal Law, that private ownership shall not be allowed in coastal areas in Turkey. However, due to deficiencies in the legislation, insufficiencies in control and enforcement, and, most importantly, lack of interoperability among institutions, it is evident that private ownership exists in coastal areas. According to the Coastal Law and the Regulation for Application of the Coastal Law, Shore Border Line (SBL) infringing sections of a real estate that remain on the coast should be annulled from the title and they should be allocated for public use. In practice, owing to the fact that institutions, which perform title annulment procedures, collect the required spatial data from the related institutions via traditional methods, it is seen that procedures are carried out quite slowly, and the process of title annulment lasts for months. Effective cooperation among many different institutions is needed in the management of coastal areas. The mechanism that will ensure this cooperation is “Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI).” The SDIs are interoperability infrastructures that allow sharing of the data and services among the related institutions or parties. Service Oriented Architecture and its most common implementation method, web services, are the latest software architecture that is recommended for realizing interoperability. In this study, the legislation related to management of coastal areas in Turkey is examined and institutions, which appear in the process of title annulment of real estates, which remain on the coast by infringing the SBL, and the procedures carried out are explained. Next, a series of web services were designed and developed for an SDI implementation, and it is demonstrated that procedures which are in practice implemented quite slowly by traditional methods can be implemented in a fast and proper manner in a web services-based SDI environment.
Keywords: Coastal area management; Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI); Web services; Shore border line; Title annulment.
Source: H. Akinci, F.A. Sesli and S. Doğan (2012); “Implementation of a web services-based SDI to control and manage private ownership rights on coastal areas“, Ocean & Coastal Management, In press, Accepted manuscript; Available online: 23 June 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.06.004.