Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
In the context of increasing pressures on European coastal zones and a proliferation of coastal and marine legislative and policy initiatives to alleviate these pressures, it is argued that there is a lack of capacity to successfully implement coastal and marine management programmes. This paper reviews perspectives of 26 coastal managers and 32 academics involved in the SPICOSA Project, to identify European coastal and marine management education and training needs and availability of courses to fulfil those needs. Results show that there are significant gaps in the requirements and delivery of courses and the paper concludes with recommendations to bridge the divide between professional needs and academic and training capacity development activities.
Source: J. Reis and C. Lowe (2011); “Capacity development of European coastal and marine management – gaps and bridges”, Ocean & Coastal Management,
Volume 55, January 2012, Pages 13-19; Available Online: 2 October 2011 under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.09.010.
This paper first describes the nature and objectives of transboundary diagnostic analysis promoted by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) in its international waters focal area. Transboundary diagnostic analysis (TDA) is a procedure intended to provide a means of identifying the proximal, intermediate and fundamental causes of environmental problems and threats in shared (multilateral) water bodies. A table of what the authors consider a priori to be essential elements for inclusion in a TDA is presented as a framework for a comparative analysis of completed TDAs. A summary of experience to date in GEF international waters marine projects is then provided as a basis for defining inconsistencies and variances among a variety of TDAs. Such inconsistencies are largely attributable to the absence of clear guidelines for conducting TDAs and inadequate specification of the content and level of detail appropriate to the formulation of GEF projects to rectify existing environmental compromises and mitigate impending threats. We advocate that the GEF develop such guidelines on an urgent basis as a means of improving the utility and comprehensiveness of TDAs. We also note that, in a number of cases, the issues addressed in individual TDAs and SAPs appear to have been “pre-selected”. Consequently, it is difficult to justify the provision of GEF funding because there is no objective way of ensuring that the selected issues are of any priority from either a global environmental perspective or the perspective of the water body itself. This adds further justification for the development of guidelines. Finally, we conclude that the processes inherently embodied in the GEF concept of transboundary diagnostic analysis have the potential for wider application. Therefore, should the GEF not undertake the preparation of associated guidelines, there would be considerable merit in the preparation, by another organization or group of individuals, of more general guidelines embodying the same concepts and objectives as those defined by the GEF.
Keywords: Global Environmental Facility (GEF); Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA); Shared water bodies; Environmental problems and threats; Development of guidelines.
Source: J.C. Pernetta and J.M. Bewers (2011); “Transboundary diagnostic analysis in international waters interventions funded by the Global Environment Facility”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 55, January 2012, Pages 1–12; Available Online: 4 October 2011 under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.09.008.
Climate change might lead to large shifts in tourist flows, with large economic implications. This article simulates the effect of future climate change by the 2080s on outdoor international tourism expenditure within Europe. The assessment is based on the statistical relationship between bed nights and a climate-related index of human comfort, after accounting for other determinants of bed nights such as income and prices. It is concluded that climate change could have significant impacts on the regional distribution of the physical resources supporting tourism in Europe. For example, in summer, Southern Europe could experience climate conditions that are less favourable to tourism than the current climate, while countries in the North could enjoy better conditions. The economic effects of these changes are likely to be sizeable, albeit difficult to assess. Crucially, they are shown to depend on tourists’ temporal flexibility with respect to holiday planning. The greater the prominence of institutional rigidities such as school holidays, the larger the differences between winning and losing regions in terms of economic impact.
Keywords: Impact of climate change; Tourism; PESETA project.
Source: B. Amelung and A. Moreno (2011); “Costing the impact of climate change on tourism in Europe: results of the PESETA project”, Climatic Change; Received: 8 April 2010; Accepted: 8 September 2011; Published Online: 25 November 2011 under DOI: 10.1007/s10584-011-0341-0.
Visualising coastal zone inundation is crucial for both a quick assessment of coastal vulnerability and a full understanding of possible implications to population, infrastructure and environment. This study presents a simple but effective method of assessing the spatial extent of coastal zone inundation due to predicted sea level rise using commonly available elevation and image data as well as GIS software. The method is based on the geometrical principle of matching the raised sea level with the corresponding elevation contour line on land. Results for a test area along the south-west coast of Western Australia (∼200 km of coast line) show that a sea level rise of less than 0.5 m over the 21st century will have only minor impact but will become important when added to an extreme sea level event (e.g. storm surge). Both century-scale (∼0.5 m) based on tide gauge records and larger (>few metres) longer-term sea level rise predictions based on the melt of ice covered areas show essentially the same areas that are most vulnerable. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by the detection of areas that can be protected by relatively small flood protective structures at river and estuary entrances, thus providing valuable information for policy makers and local councils.
Keywords: Coastal zone inundation; Visualising; Sea level rise; South-west coast of Western Australia.
Source: M. Kuhn, D. Tuladhar and R. Corner (2011); “Visualising the spatial extent of predicted coastal zone inundation due to sea level rise in south-west Western Australia“, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 54, Issue 11, November 2011, Pages 796-806; Available Online: 12 August 2011 under DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.08.005.