Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The management of coastal systems where overlapping economic interests compete for the same resources make the use of integrated approaches indispensable. The Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) focuses mainly on three major goals: (1) overcoming the conflicts associated with the sectorial management, (2) preserving the productivity and biological diversity of coastal systems, and (3) promoting and equitable and sustainable allocation of coastal resources. The DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Responses) framework is a common tool that allows the description of environmental problems by defining the relationships between anthropogenic activities and the environment. In this context, the use of numerical models as integrative tools in ICZM has grown significantly over the years.
This work focused on three estuarine systems in South America: Santosestuary (Brazil, 24_S) and Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina, 39_S) in the Atlantic coast and Aysén fjord (Chile, 45_S) in the Pacific coast. These estuaries differ significantly in their physical, chemical and biological conditions, as well as on their socio-economic settings and human-related problems. Numerical models have been used to study the relation between the pressures derived from human activities and their impact on the state of each system.
The results present a contribute to increase the scientific knowledge needed to support the implementation of local legislations and policies, to assess different scenarios of coastal activities and sources use, to support management decisions and, ultimately, to promote sustainable of coastal resources.
Source: F. J. Campuzano, M. D. Mateus, P. C. Leitão, P. C. Leitão, V. H. Marín, L. E. Delgado, A. Tironi, J. O. Pierini, A. J.P. Sampaio, P. Almeida and J. N. Ramiro (2011); “Integrated coastal zone management in South America: A look at three contrasting systems”, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in Ocean and Coastal Management; Received: 15 April 2011; Revised: 30 July 2011; Accepted: 2 August 2011; Available online: 12 August 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.08.002.
Beaches are the most popular recreational destinations in Australia yet how they are visited and valued by Australians is poorly known. We surveyed 385 people (13.8% of 2,800 coastal residents) from south eastern Australia to examine their use of beaches and the features that are important in their choice and enjoyment of a beach destination. Most respondents (90.3%) nominated beaches as their most valued natural recreational environment. Thirty-four recreational activities occurred at the beach (8.6 ± 0.3 [mean ± SE] activities per respondent), mostly walking (91.4%) and swimming (78.9%). Factor analyses revealed respondents valued clean, uncrowded beaches with opportunities to view wildlife (n = 338) but also desired facilities (e.g. toilets, shade, life savers, food outlets; n = 331). Difficult access and intrusive recreation activities (e.g. vehicles on beaches) detracted from people's enjoyment. We describe a distinct dichotomy in use of “local” versus “non-local” beaches, where local beaches are visited more frequently, throughout more of the year, outside working hours and by smaller groups of people, compared with “non-local” beaches. Coastal planners and managers not only face the challenge of increasing visitation to beaches but also the need to manage for somewhat conflicting values among beach-goers.
Source: G.S. Maguire, K.K. Miller, M.A. Weston and Y. Kirsten (2011); “Being beside the seaside: beach use and preferences among coastal residents of south-eastern Australia“, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in Ocean and Coastal Management; Received: 4 February 2011; Revised: 27 July 2011; Accepted: 29 July 2011; Available online: 5 August 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.07.012.
Started in 2008, the MARGov project proposes to build a Model of Collaborative Governance for Marine Protected Areas (MPA), using as a case study the Marine Park Luiz Saldanha (MPLS), Sesimbra, Portugal. The project works through an eco-social dialogue supported by active participation and aims to empower the local communities making them active agents for the sustainable governance of the coast and the ocean. In fact, successful MPA depend on the balance between man and environment, and on the eco-social dialogue established among all actors. The MARGov project is structured in three components - Governance, Citizenship and Dynamic-Spatial Structure. Here we present the work already developed in two of the components – Governance and Citizenship. The first component mainly aims at reinforcing competences and the co-responsibility of all key-actors within MPLS. Several participatory sessions, involving the local community, have been organized since the end of 2009 improving the communication and to set up a constructive dialog – reducing sources of conflict – among all the stakeholders. The Citizenship component targeted to re-establish the traditional affective link between the local community and the ocean, mostly by means of environmental education sessions in elementary schools. In this paper we present the methodology, the main results and discuss the lessons learned, theorizing from action and exploring how to pursue in the future for the sustainable management of Portuguese MPA. Intermediate outcomes include specific actions (e.g., strategy to promote sustainable tourism, enhance co-liability of users in inspection and surveillance); as well as comprehensive ones, such as a proposal to expand the existing strategic council of the MPA towards a satellite structure of co-management that includes representatives of different stakeholder groups in continuing articulation. The methodology developed for the collaborative process as, so far, revealed to have a substantial potential in enhancing trust building and empowerment. Stakeholders now show greater autonomy to pursue independent initiatives within the social network consolidated during the project.
Keywords: Citizenship; Empowerment; Governance; Marine Protected Areas; Public Participation.
Source: L. Vasconcelos, M.J. Ramos Pereira, U. Caser, G. Gonçalves, F. Silva and R. Sá (2011); “MARGov – Setting the ground for the governance of Marine Protected Areas“, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in Ocean and Coastal Management; Received: 12 April 2011; Revised: 19 July 2011; Accepted: 24 July 2011; Available online: 29 July 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.07.006
Pollution of the marine environment leads to corresponding changes within the ecosystem. Thus, evaluation of the marine environment for management purposes, which is a procedure complicated by multi-hierarchy, multi-factors, and multi-uncertainty, should be considered from both ecological and environmental standpoints. Currently, the lack of consideration of the relationship between bio-indicators and water pollution in marine environmental evaluation hinders the efforts of conventional modeling approaches in this field. This paper presents an innovative dynamic modeling system that we call the grey dynamic modeling system (GDMS). This system synthesizes the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), grey target theory (GTT), and grey forecasting modeling approaches (GM(1,1)), and it takes both ecological and environmental factors into account during evaluation and forecasting of the marine environment in coastal areas. To effectively eliminate the subjective errors of the traditional AHP process, the GTT analysis is used to replace expert scoring, which defines the grey relational grades of the bio-indicator indices(BI) and the water pollution indices(WPI).The structure of the AHP then is applied to link the bio-indicators and pollution, which enables the system to generate the primary factors necessary for the evaluation of the marine environment from both ecological and pollution perspectives. The new modeling system was used to evaluate and forecast the marine eco-environment in the Tianjin section of Bohai Bay, China. This case study highlights the key features of the approach. The bio-indicator indices(BI) and water pollution indices(WPI) monitoring data from 2002–2007 of 8 monitoring sites are input to this dynamic modeling system and the results illustrate the following: Pollution of the study area is currently serious and tends to be worse in the future, and the worst areas are sites 2, 3, and 4 based on their key pollution indices biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) which have the main effects on marine eco-system. These results can be used as the basis for marine environmental manager to define the key pollution factors, key pollution sites and the pollution trends of the marine environment of the whole study area.
Keywords: Bio-indicator Index (BI); Water Pollution Index (WPI); Grey Dynamic Modeling System (GDMS); Marine environmental evaluation.
Source: X. Tian, M. Ju, C. Shao and Z. Fang (2011); “Developing a new grey dynamic modeling
system for evaluation of biology and pollution indicators of the marine environment in coastal areas“, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in Ocean and Coastal Management; Received: 31 May 2011; Revised: 2 August 2011; Accepted: 3 August 2011; Available online: 12 August 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.08.003.