Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Reforms within the Indonesian political system, following the fall of the Soeharto regime in 1998, have led to some fundamental changes in the structure of government and civil administration. Two new laws, Law No. 22/1999 on Regional Government (Decentralization Law) and Law No. 25/1999 on the Fiscal Balance between the Central Government and the Regions (Fiscal Decentralization Law), which have already been revised with the enactment of laws 32/2004 and 33/2004 promote a reconsideration of community-based approaches to coastal zone management. These laws also provide new opportunities for institutionalization of local values and community institution to manage coastal resources. This paper examines community-based and co-management approaches in coastal zone management in Indonesia. It is argued that co-management is an appropriate approach in managing Indonesian coastal zone as it allows for the development of a model containing a balance of power between governments, communities as whole and a wide range of individual stakeholders.
Keywords: Decentralization; Coastal zone management; Community-based management co-management; Indonesia.
Source: H. Y. Siry (2011); “In search of appropriate approaches to coastal zone management in Indonesia”, to appear in: Ocean & Coastal Management, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript; Received: 5 January 2007; Revised: 14 January 2011; Accepted: 25 March 2011; Available Online: 3 April 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.03.009.
A Marine Protected Area (MPA) potentially generates a wide range of consumptive use, non-consumptive use and non-use values that include: critical habitat protection, conservation of marine biodiversity, recovery of threatened and endangered marine species, increased recreational benefits and increased biomass of harvested marine species. To help assess whether such values exceed the potential costs of MPAs, this paper provides a policy-enabling framework that reviews the existing theoretical and practical instruments and approaches that can be used in the ex-ante evaluation of MPAs. This framework is in three parts and identifies the factors that are relevant to understand the benefits and costs associated with the establishment of MPAs. First, a range of alternative monetary and non-monetary techniques to estimate three key economic benefits of MPAs: consumptive, non-consumptive use and non-use values are presented. Second, three decision protocols that can be applied to determine the desirability of establishing MPAs are described. Third, caveats of these approaches and the need to accommodate the social needs of the communities are provided. The framework shows that biological and ecological considerations together with economic viability and socio-economic factors can and should be taken into account when deciding about when and where to establish MPAs and of what size.
Source: R. Q. Grafton, S. Akter and T. Kompas (2011); “A Policy-Enabling Framework for the Ex-Ante Evaluation of Marine Protected Areas”, to appear in: Ocean and Coastal Management; Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript; Received: 14 August 2009; Revised: 21 March 2011; Accepted: 25 March 2011; Available Online: 3 April 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.03.006.
Seasonal variations and effect of oceanographic processes such as erosion and / or accretion along beaches are important to understand their impact on coastal morphological variations. Detailed investigations were taken up to analyse the volumetric and morphologic variations of the beaches between Pirwadi (latitude 16° 12´ N, longitude 73° 26.55´ E) and Sarjekot (latitude 16° 05´ N, longitude 73° 27.80´ E) of South Maharashtra, Central West Coast of India. This stretch is known for its rich deposits of ilmenite, magnetite and chromite. This study is based on the results of seasonal topographic profiles carried out between October 2004 and December 2005. The volume variations of the sediments, i.e., an account of accretion and / or erosion, were estimated considering the October 2004 profile as the base reference, over which the values of other seasons are compared. The results of beach profiling from Pirwadi to Talashil indicate the seasonal variations in the beach configuration and the gradient.
In the studied areas the vulnerable areas are Tondavali, Talashil and Pirwadi in a decreasing order of erosion while Bagwadi shows lesser erosion. Several reasons can be attributed for these erosional trends among which the prominent are: rip currents, wave dynamics, variable coastal configuration, beach gradient and temporary monsoonal seaward flowing streams. In contrast, significant deposition occurs throughout the year at Hirlewadi due to sediment transported by littoral currents. Therefore, considering the sensitivity of the fragile coastal system, future developmental activities (mining, tourism, etc.) need to be planned in tandem with the required protective measures such as construction of reinforced concrete curved wall and geotextiles.
Keywords: Morphodynamic variability; Seasonal beach sediments; Coastal development; South Maharashtra, Central West Coast of India.
Source: A.R. Gujar, P. Ganesan, S.D. Iyer, S.S. Gaonkar, N.V. Ambre, V.J. Loveson and P.G. Mislankar (2011); “Influence of morphodynamic variability over seasonal beach sediments and its probable effect on coastal development”, to appear in: Ocean and Coastal Management; Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript; Received: 15 July 2010; Revised: 7 February 2011; Accepted: 26 March 2011; Available Online: 3 April 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.03.007.
A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary method was tested in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees in order to understand the relationship between landscape change, landscape processes, and ecological and social characteristics of landscapes. The three scales, and their corresponding methods, help us understand the processes of landscape change: on a general scale, a standardisation due to forest spread; on a detailed scale, a fragmentation of non-forest habitats; and on a local scale, the regeneration and scattering of woody species. Major landscape alterations have been observed through remotely sensed data. Closed forest area grew 140% at the expense of non-forest habitats such as pastures (–75%) and cultivated lands (–95%) during the past 50 years. Ecological metrics show a landscape standardisation (SHDI divided by 3) and a fragmentation of farmed landscapes. These changes, following a spatial pattern based on topography, explain the dynamic of the woody species in residual pastures, despite the persistence of cattle grazing as observed during field surveys. Yet, the forest, which constitutes the matrix of landscape, is not stable because of competition between species. The landscape change is related to the decline of the population (divided by 4.5 during the past 50 years) and the agricultural activities (number of farms divided by 2 or 3 during the past 20 years), and the favourable mild climate. The sustainable development of this territory should make the objectives of conservation, biodiversity and landscape protection and the preservation of their Mediterranean features compatible, and support agricultural activities that will contribute to this biological diversity and cultural identity.
Source: M. Cohen, D. Varga, J. Vila and e. Barrassaud (2011); “A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary approach to monitor landscape dynamics: a case study in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees (Spain)”, The Geographical Journal, Volume 177, Issue 1, pages 79–91, March 2011; Article first published online: 26 August 2010, under DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4959.2010.00368.x.