Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
In the Philippines, Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) represents the dominant response to narratives of ecosystem decline. However, there are persistent challenges to implementation, manifested in continued resource degradation, questioning of the exercise of stakeholder involvement and rising resource conflicts. This paper examines the implementation process and how the assumptions embodied in the ICM regime meet the local reality in one group of islands in the Philippine archipelago. The evidence shows how the transformation towards a supposed equilibrium state of coastal ecosystems is undermined in the face of diverging stakeholder agendas. Expected actors are disempowered by the incoherence between the policy owners’ worldview and reality, paving the way for unethical influence from elite alliances. This is coupled with a deepening of the dominance of state, international development banks, foreign aid agencies, and NGOs in promoting their respective interests. In localities such as the Babuyan Islands, when assumptions of ICM collapse it has destructive consequences for fisherfolk and the coastal environment. We conclude that if ICM is to foster an effective and equitable correction of current unsustainable exploitation patterns, then there is a need to institute improved accountability mechanisms in the devolved governance system as well as taking seriously the espoused commitment to stakeholder involvement in determining the goals and assumptions of ICM.
Source: R. Klocker Larsen, J. M. Acebes and A. Belen (2010); “Examining the assumptions of integrated coastal management: Stakeholder agendas and elite cooption in Babuyan Islands, Philippines“, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 54, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 10-18; Available Online: 23 October 2010, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.007.
Privatization is often viewed to provide positive stimulus for the economy that can lead to the betterment of society. But when the appropriate governance systems are not functionally in place, the unwanted effects of privatization can have deleterious consequences. This paper highlights the consequences of undesirable privatization and the emergent unwanted privatization tendencies of the coastal commons, particularly in the developing countries such as the Philippines. The lack of coherent policies, standards, and weak enforcement of policies in leasing the coastal commons (e.g. various unregulated aquaculture) in the Philippines in particular, have resulted to alarming displacement, deprivation and marginalization of fishing and farming communities and have degraded many coastal zone areas. In addition, poorly planned coastal tourism and housing development projects in the foreshore areas, inappropriate reclamation of coastal areas, illegal usurpation of indigenous people’s rights over ancestral domain areas, and conversion of fishing and fish farming zones into ecotourism zones further aggravated this scenario. Equitable access to resources is of paramount importance to afford concerned stakeholders greater participation in terms of developing greater capacity for coastal communities to engage and demand for improved coastal governance – an important facet of public administration often identified as one of the challenges in managing the commons. Co-management with an Ecosystem-Based Management approach as core operational mechanism provides opportunities to enhance policy formulation and implementation, secure community safety nets, and facilitate the creation of a level-playing environment that help to prevent the unwanted effects of privatization.
Source: R.B. Cabral and P.M. Aliño (2010); “Transition from common to private coasts: Consequences of privatization of the coastal commons”, Ocean & Coastal Management,
Volume 54, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 66-74; Available Online: 27 October 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.023.
This study examines spatially referenced perceived landscape values and climate change risks collected through public participation geographic information systems for potential use in climate change planning. Using survey data from the Southern Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia, we present a method for identifying perceived landscape values and climate change risks to describe and quantify their spatial associations. Two spatial data models - vector and raster - and two analytical methods - Jaccard coefficients and spatial cross-correlations were used to describe the spatial associations. Results indicate that perceptions of climate change risk are driven, in part, by the values people assign or hold for places on the landscape. Biodiversity and intrinsic landscape values have strong spatial association with biodiversity loss risk while recreation values have strong spatial association with riparian flooding, sea-level rise and wave action risks. Other landscape values show weak to no spatial association with perceived climate change risks. The methodology described in this research provides a mechanism for government agencies to develop place-based adaptation strategies based on these associations.
Source: C.M. Raymond and G. Brown (2010); “Assessing spatial associations between perceptions of landscape value and climate change risk for use in climate change planning”, Climatic Change, Volume 104, Numbers 3-4, 653-678; Received: 16 June 2008; Accepted: 18 January 2010; Published Online: 20 April 2010, under DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9806-9.
Many countries now recognise the need for mitigation of climate change induced by human activities and have incorporated renewable energy resources within their energy policy. There are extensive resources of renewable energy within the marine environment and increasing interest in extracting energy from locations with either large tidal range, rapid flow with and without wave interaction, or large wave resources. However, the ecological implications of altering the hydrodynamics of the marine environment are poorly understood. Ecological data for areas targeted for marine renewable developments are often limited, not least because of the considerable challenges to sampling in high energy environments. In order to predict the scale and nature of ecological implications there is a need for greater understanding of the distribution and extent of the renewable energy resource and in turn, of how marine renewable energy installations (MREIs) may alter energy in the environment. Regional ecological implications of a MREI need to be considered against the greater and global ecological threat of climate change. Finally, it is recommended that the identification of species and biotopes susceptible to the removal of hydrokinetic energy could be a suitable strategy for understanding how a MREI may alter flow conditions.
Keywords: Marine renewable energy installations (MREIs); Hydrodynamics; Ecological implications.
Source: M.A. Shields, D.K. Woolf, E.P.M. Grist, S.A. Kerr, A.C. Jackson, R.E. Harris, M.C. Bell, R. Beharie, A. Want, E. Osalusi, S.W. Gibb and J. Side (2010); “Marine renewable energy: The ecological implications of altering the hydrodynamics of the marine environment”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 54, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 2-9; Available Online: 5 November 2010, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.036.