Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Free Trade Zones (FTZs) around the world offer special advantages to investors and facilitate import/export of goods in order to boost the regional economy. Integrated coastal management in these areas faces special challenges in addition to what ordinary ICZMs usually encounter. For a successful ICZM plan, the very strong business orientation in FTZs has to be taken into account, while other important aspects such as environmental, social, and cultural issues should not be overlooked. The problem becomes more difficult where the free zone is situated in sensitive and valuable environmental circumstances.
Kish Island, a free trade zone in the Persian Gulf region, has recently been the focus of a major ICZM study. In order to address the different needs of various stakeholders in the island, four strategic management plans are prepared. The investigations carried out in the course of this study indicated that the required management plans for this free trade zone should be provided with a spatial-plan-oriented approach; otherwise, the integration can hardly be achieved and implemented.
This article describes Kish FTZ characteristics and problems that required ICZM initiatives, the methodology for ICZM study, the preparation and implementation of strategic management plans considering the free zone obligations, and the need for a spatial umbrella plan to facilitate the integration among different plans in the implementation process.
Source: A. Pak and F. Majd (2010); “Integrated Coastal Management Plan in Free Trade Zones, a Case Study”, Ocean & Coastal Management, February 2011, Vol. 54, Issue 2, Pages 129-136; Available Online; 18 November 2010, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033.
This paper includes the proposals made in the report “Basis for a National Strategy for Coastal Zone Management” prepared for the Portuguese Ministry of Environment, Territorial Planning and Regional Development. The final version of that report was presented in June 2006. This paper describes a theme framework followed by a discussion of concepts. Nine Primary Principles, eight Principal Objectives, and 37 Strategic Options for an Integrated Coastal Zone Management are then presented. These Strategic Options are set hierarchically according to their sequential priority, identifying the dominant types of Associated Measures. The analysis of these arrives at a set of Structural Measures, which interlink and aggregate various actions and propose a new method of integrated management for the coastal zone, which includes the “Legal Basis of Coastal Zone”; the Organization System; the Action Plan and Monitoring.
Keywords: Integrated Coastal Zone Management; National Strategy for Coastal Zone Management; Portugal.
Source: F. Veloso-Gomes, A. Barroco, A. Ramos Pereira, C. Sousa Reis, H. Calado, J. Gomes Ferreira, M. Da Conceição Freitas and M. Biscoito (2008); “Basis for a National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management - in Portugal”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, Volume 12, Number 1, 3-9; Received: 18 March 2008; Revised: 20 July 2008; Published Online: 19 September 2008, under DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11852-008-0017-8.
The Hammam-Lif shoreline, which is part of the Gulf of Tunis (North-East of Tunisia), suffered from a dramatic erosion event during a storm in 1981. Therefore, eight successive and detached breakwaters were built to protect it. The effect of these protection works on the evolution of this coastline is assessed using aerial photographs geo-referenced by digital photogrammetric methods. Results show that a general accretion has developed behind the detached breakwaters, with the formation of seven tombolos and one salient. The response of the coastline depends on the characteristics of the protective works (length, distance to coast, and spacing). Detached breakwaters which are short, far from the coastline and distant from each other, give rise to very small tombolos or salients. On the other hand, longer breakwaters which are near the coastline and closely spaced, give rise to more developed tombolos, showing that these structures are the most efficient.
Source: H. Belgacem Saïdi, R. Souissi and F. Zargouni (2010); “Detached Breakwaters’ Effects on a Microtidal Mediterranean Coast, a Case of the Hammam-Lif Littoral (North-East of Tunisia)”, Journal of Coastal Conservation; Received: 30 April 2010; Revised: 2 December 2010; Accepted: 2 December 2010; Published Online: 21 December 2010, under DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0140-1.
This study deals with potential changes in the relative humidity associated with global warming and their implications on heat stress along the coastal region of the Mediterranean in the summer season. It is based on the assumption that the regional warming will enhance the lower-level stability due to the thermal inertia of the sea with respect to its overlying air. The enhanced stability implies more effective trapping of the near surface moisture, and as a result - further increase of the relative humidity. The marine boundary layer over the Mediterranean is modelled. The central feature of the model is the marine inversion capping the marine moist air, which intensity is positively correlated with the stability. Simple calculations indicate that if the temperature increases, while the stability remains unchanged, the near-surface relative humidity would not be affected. But, an increase in the stability would result in an increase in the near-surface relative humidity. This prediction is validated through observed trends of the respective fields, using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and soundings from the eastern Mediterranean. The results are consistent in indicating an increase in the near-surface temperature, the lower-level stability and the relative humidity over the eastern part of the Mediterranean, but not in its western part. The results for the eastern Mediterranean support the expectation for an aggravation of heat stress beyond that imparted by the temperature rise.
Keywords: Moisture; Heat Stress; Global Warming; the Mediterranean; Regional Warming; NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data.
Source: B. Ziv and H. Saaroni (2009); “The Contribution of Moisture to Heat Stress in a Period of Global Warming: the Case of the Mediterranean”, Climatic Change, Volume 104, Number 2, Pages 305-315, from the issue entitled "Climatic Change Letters | Edited by Michael Oppenheimer | pages 379-422"; Received: 3 July 2007; Accepted: 26 August 2009; Published Online 10 October 2009, under DOI: 10.1007/s10584-009-9710-3.