Following a request presented by the Government of Montenegro, the Contracting Parties to the Barcelona Convention approved the decision to carry out the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) project for Montenegro at their 14th Ordinary Meeting held on 8 – 11 November 2005 in Portoroz, Slovenia. The decision to start with the initiation of the CAMP Montenegro was adopted at the meeting in Split, on 18 – 19 December 2006. The Feasibility Study (FS) was prepared in the period December 2007 – May 2008.
Based on the findings of the FS and subsequent developments, as well as on discussions with the Ministry of Spatial Planning and Environment (MSPE) and other relevant national institutions held in February 2010, a draft CAMP Project Agreement was prepared. The CAMP Agreement was signed in Budva on 30 May 2011. The project was envisaged to last between June 2011 and December 2013, while the implementation of post-project activities was foreseen for 2014. However, the project implementation prolonged to the end of 2014 and post-project activities are foreseen for 2015.
As a result of meetings with representatives of MSPE on 25 - 26 June 2010 and with representatives of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism - MSDT on 10 February 2011 in Podgorica, a number of pre-CAMP activities took place. These included the preparation of an analysis of the implementation of the Art. 8 of the ICZM Protocol to the spatial planning system in Montenegro and the preparation of expert guidelines for the Terms of Reference for the Montenegrin Coastal Area Spatial Plan (CASP). These assessments, as well as changes in terms of institutional and legislative framework for the implementation of the national environmental and spatial planning policy led toward the necessary redefinition of the CAMP activities to be fully tailor-made for the ICZM Protocol implementation.
The CAMP Montenegro project area is the entire coastal zone comprising six coastal municipalities – Herceg Novi, Kotor, Tivat, Budva, Bar and Ulcinj – with the total surface of 1,591 km2 and internal waters and territorial sea with the surface of around 2,500 km2. Some of the typical natural features of the coastal area include: a diversified geological composition and complex geo-tectonic structure; plain coastal areas / fields and beaches; steep elevations of Orjen, Lovcen and Rumija mountains (which separate the area from the central part of Montenegro); short watercourses flowing into the sea, dividing the region into small geo-morphological units; and the exquisite Bay of Boka Kotorska with several smaller bays.
According to the relevant spatial plans, the total length of the mainland seashore is 288,2 km (out of which 105,5 km in the Bay of Boka Kotorska). The islands’ shores are 25,6 km long, while the length of the shore along the river Bojana is 22,8 km. Only 20% of the coastal sea, next to low sandy beaches and accessible rocky shores, is relatively shallow with a sandy and pebble bottom suitable for bathing. The project area is shown in the Figure below.
The CAMP Montenegro project is based on an integrated approach to marine, coastal and river basin environment and development problems. This emphasises that project activities will cut across protection and development problems, harmonise public sector priorities and private sector pressures, and provide an integrated strategy for the common goal of achieving development in the region within a sustainable management policy framework. The main goals of the CAMP Montenegro are: a) to create necessary mechanisms that can help achieve sustainable development of the coastal area; b) to support implementation of national policies and of the ICZM Protocol; c) to promote an integrated and participatory planning and management in the coastal area; d) to build national and local capacities for ICZM and raise awareness of the importance of the coastal area, complexity and fragility of its ecosystems and of the need for integrated approaches in managing them; and e) to facilitate the transfer of knowledge of ICZM tools and approaches.
In order to achieve the objectives, the CAMP Montenegro will be tailored around two main lines of activities:
Horizontal activities that include:
- Project co-ordination, integration and dissemination of results which are an integral part of all CAMP projects. For the CAMP Montenegro, this activity will be implemented through the institutional structure developed in line with the CAMP. The main objective is to secure a harmonised, timely and cost-effective implementation of the Project in accordance with the Project Agreement.
- Training and capacity building. The capacity of national and especially of local institutions to implement Sustainable Development and ICZM policies and undertake integrated planning and management is weak. Despite recent efforts to expand and improve monitoring in the coastal area, there is still a need for further development of the monitoring programme to bring it in line with MEDPOL and EEA requirements. At the same time, there is a need to improve knowledge and to disseminate information on cleaner production. In order to address the existing weaknesses and lack of information / knowledge, a series of trainings was organised through the CAMP Montenegro to strengthen human resource capacities in local and national administrations, planning, natural resources management, tourism development and monitoring institutions, as well as in private sector (industry, small- and medium-sized enterprises - SMEs). The main objective of these activities is to increase capacities of different institutions to understand, apply and use different ICZM instruments for sustainable development through transfer of knowledge and training.
- Awareness raising. The general level of awareness of the importance of ICZM can be described as unsatisfactory. Information on the value of natural resources in the coastal area and necessity to manage them in a sustainable way is not communicated to the public in an organised way. Research results and available information on the threats from unsustainable development patterns are not present in the public to the extent that could lead to changing perceptions and behaviours. Exceptions to the described situation are various projects implemented by specialised institutions and NGOs / other civil sector organisations. With all this in mind, it is necessary for the CAMP project for Montenegro to help with efforts to disseminate information on coastal area values and vulnerabilities and to promote sustainable development approaches among the general public, capitalising on the efforts of those stakeholders who are already working on awareness raising and coastal area management.
Individual activities that include:
- Support for the Coastal Area Spatial Plan (CASP) of Montenegro and ICZM framework setup, Analysis of implications of the ICZM Protocol for spatial planning;
- Preparation of CASP baseline studies enabling the integration of ICZM principles;
- Preparation of the ICZM Plan (in line with the requirements of the ICZM Protocol);
- Preparation of SEA for the ICZM Plan;
- Harmonisation of CASP with the ICZM Plan.
The Montenegrin Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism (MSDT), in its roles of the National Focal Point for MAP and CAMP Montenegro National Lead Agency, exercises the overall supervision of all project activities in the country and of those implemented by national participants, in co-operation with MAP. The Steering Committee, comprising members of the MSDT, coastal municipalities and MAP - PAP/RAC, provides the overall guidance for the project.
Many activities have been successfully implemented within the CAMP Montenegro resulting with valuable outputs.
I After a series of consultations that the expert team held at the margins of the Workshop on the coastal setback in 2013, the Study on attractiveness assessment of the agriculture was finalised. The document is a result of work of a team of experts in agriculture and of the experts dealing with the attractiveness and suitability, as well as of the CAMP Co-ordinator.
II Following a concept for determination of the coastal setback, as well as the principles on how to determine the coastal setback zone, the Proposal for the setback determination was presented to the Minister of Sustainable Development and Tourism. The results have been also shared with the developer of the Coastal Area Spatial Plan (CASP). The results show that the total of 26,8% of the coast (64.244 m) cannot be adapted. The largest part of the coast, i.e. 23,3% (54.193 m) is located outside the construction areas and, consequently, was not designated for construction anyway. The remaining 4,3% (10.050 m) of the coastline are proposed to be the area where adaptation is not possible since it includes areas of moderate, high and highest vulnerability.
III Particularly important aspect for the sustainable development of the coastal area is the integration of valuable parts of the sea shore for the adaptation of which the neighbouring / contact area in their direct vicinity is not proposed due to landscape, natural and other values that should be preserved in their natural form or become a part of the open space system where intensive urban developments are not to be planned, being in compliance with the ICZM Protocol. The proposal for open spaces will be used as a basis for defining a sustainable regime of development of open spaces in compliance with the ICZM Protocol, the ICZM Plan and the Action Plan. As a part of the open space concept the "no go" areas will be defined in the future CASP as the areas with no urban developments.
IV Progress was made in finalisation of other CAMP-based studies, including the Study on the socio-economic development and the Study on the assessment of carrying capacities.
V Progress was also made in the development of the National Strategy for ICZM (NS ICZM), including the participatory process in the development of the NS ICZM.
VI As a part of a participatory process, the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (CEED) in co-operation with the CAMP Co-ordination Unit, conducted in-depth interviews with target groups at the national and local level. The reports on the results of consultations primarily focused on recognizing priority issues for the ICZM in Montenegro, problems and causes. The most important event in the participatory process was the celebration of the 2013 Coast Day.
At the Government meeting held in December 2013, all CAMP outputs and results were presented to the Prime Minister and the Government. As the result of significant achievements undertaken within the CAMP Montenegro project, in particular related to strengthening the spatial planning system, the Montenegrin Government declared that all CAMP results were obligatory for the spatial plan (i.e. to be inserted into coastal spatial plans – regional and the local ones).
Concluding deliberations and recommendations
Results of the analyses conducted within the CAMP Montenegro indicate that it is necessary to optimise land uses in the coastal zone by decreasing the scope of construction areas. If the Special Purpose Spatial Plan for the Coastal Zone of Montenegro (SPSP CZ MNE) confirms all the areas planned for construction in the coastal zone as designated under valid spatial plans, i.e. if it confirms construction areas expanding over 46% of the surface of a 1 km wide belt, the planned construction in the period of 16 years up to 2030 would more than double all the capacities that were built so far by all previous generations and all investors until nowadays (14% of the 1 km belt have been developed by now). It is more than obvious that such a plan is neither sustainable nor realistically implementable. The planned level to which the area is to be built up is exceptionally high even when compared to several times more densely populated coasts of Spain, France and Italy. On the other hand, natural, non-developed coast and adjacent spaces represent an important attractiveness basis for tourism and the overall development of the coastal zone of Montenegro.
In a situation where decrease of construction areas is mandatory the issue of criteria for selecting the zones or parts of the zones where annulation of construction area status should be proposed arises. While respecting other criteria, in particular inherited rights in a situation where detailed planning documents are being developed for a certain zone (with known investors), general vulnerability assessment might be particularly useful. This assessment showed that 80% of undeveloped parts of all the construction areas is on locations with a high (grade 4) and a very high (grade 5) vulnerability.
Map 1: Areas of conflict between non-built construction areas and areas of the highest vulnerability – cumulative model of general vulnerability
Irrational expansion of construction areas is frequently conducted by changing the use of agricultural land. Such a practice is harmful not only for agriculture but can cause other negative consequences such as soil erosion, environmental pollution, destruction of cultural heritage and lowering of the overall attractiveness of certain areas. In relation to the attainment of one of the basic objectives of sustainable development that refers to preservation of agricultural land as a natural resource, the conflict caused by changing the use of agricultural land requires a responsible approach in planning urbanisation at the municipal and regional level. Such an approach requires consistent restrictions to expansion of existing settlements and dispersed construction, including a decrease of construction areas and their redirecting to the zones within urbanised units.
Map 2: Surface of larger areas with non-alignment (conflicts) between non-built construction areas and areas (entirely or partly) suitable for agriculture
One of the key instruments of the ICZM Protocol is the instrument of the coastal setback. However, the intention of prescribing the coastal setback is not to prevent further development of valuable traditional coastal settlements in line with rules that guided emergence of their physical structures in the first place. In such situations, insisting on strict observation of the coastal setback is not justified and the ICZM Protocol recognizes such situations and envisages the possibility of adapting the setback to address them. It is also important to mention that the application of the coastal setback is not automatic – instead it has to result from a careful consideration of natural conditions of space while respecting guaranteed ownership relations as well as important urban and social conditions.
Related to this, the application of the coastal setback should not be distinguished from good spatial planning practices as the principles that motivated the introduction of the setback are the same that make the basis of spatial and urban planning. For the same reason, the optimal solution would be to resolve the issue of the coastal setback according to the ICZM Protocol in the same process used to redefine construction areas of settlements (including determination of open spaces) in line with the obligations of the Article 77 of the Rulebook, i.e. in line with findings of the analyses conducted in the framework of the SPSP CZ MNE preparation and CAMP activities.
The key findings of the process of the CAMP Montenegro implementation have been derived in a way as to find their full application in the SPSP CZ MNE, primarily through the definition of the main land uses (forest and agricultural areas), determination of zones with a limited construction (through the setback application and identification of wider zones that should be preserved from future development) and establishment of conditions for bringing planned land uses to their purpose.
Map 3: Optimisation of land uses
MAP-PAP/RAC.2015. CAMP Montenegro - Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Montenegro: Final Report. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 106
(Download: Final Report_JK.pdf / 4.5MB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2014. CAMP Montenegro: Analiza i vrijednovanje ruralnih otvorenih prostora unutar obalnog područja Crne Gore. pp 21|
(CAMP_Vrednovanje otvorenih prostora.pdf / 4.526 KB)
MAP-PAP/RAC.2015. Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Montenegro: Participatory Process. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 24 + Annexes
(Participatory Process - Report.pdf / 4.526 KB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. CAMP Montenegro: General Vulnerability Assessment - Summary. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 92 |
(Download: General Vulnerability Assessment.pdf / 4.526 KB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. CAMP Montenegro: Defining the Coastal Setback. pp 36 + Annexes|
(Download: Defining the coastal setback.pdf / 1.26 KB)
|MSDTM, MAP-PAP/RAC.2015. National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourim of Montenegro, Podgorica. pp. 132|
(Download: Obalno Podrucje_Web_Engl.pdf / 35MB)
|MORT, MAP-PAP/RAC.2015. Nacionalna strategija integralnog upravljanja obalnim područjem Crne Gore. Ministarstvo održivog razvoja i turizma, Podgorica. pp. 132|
(Download: Obalno Podrucje_Web.pdf / 37MB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2014. Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Montenegro: Institutional and Legal Framework for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Montenegro. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 54|
(Download: Institutional and legal framework.pdf / 716 KB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. CAMP Montenegro - Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Montenegro: Information on the Progress. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 11 + Annexes|
(Download: Information on Progress_CAMP Montenegro and ICZM Strategy_ENG.pdf / 1 MB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. CAMP Montenegro: Vulnerability Assessment of the Narrow Coastal Zone - Summary. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 42 + Annexes|
(Download: Vulnerability Assessment of the Narrow Coastal Zone.pdf / 2.36 MB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. CAMP Montenegro: Analiza socio-ekonomskog razvoja obalnog područja Crne Gore. pp 86 + Annexes|
(Download: Socio-ekonomska analiza.pdf / 7.7MB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. CAMP Montenegro: Assessment of attractiveness and suitability of the coastal zone of Montenegro for development of agriculture - Summary. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 66 |
(Download: Assessment of attractiveness and suitability of the coastal zone of Montenegro.pdf / 1.317 KB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2013. Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Montenegro: Position Paper for the ICZM Strategy for Montenegro. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 46|
(Download: Position Paper - EN_Final.pdf / 1.1 MB)
|MAP-PAP/RAC.2012. CAMP Montenegro - Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Montenegro; Inception Report. Split, MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 72|
(inception_report_montenegro.pdf / 4.526 KB)
MAP-PAP/RAC.2011. Agreement relative to the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) - the project for Montenegro.
PAP/RAC. 2008. CAMP Montenegro; Feasibility Study. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. viii + 94.
(Download CAMP Feasibility Study.pdf // 2.5 MB)
Report of the Meeting on the initiation of CAMP activities in Montenegro (Split, 18 -19 December 2006)
(Download Report Meeting Dec06.pdf / 99KB)