Water Resources in the Mediterranean


A large part of the Mediterranean basin, particularly its islands and isolated coastal areas, has for years experienced persistent water scarcity. The problem has been aggravated due to the rapid population growth, socio-economic development, and mass Mediterranean tourism which have strained the natural resources of this region to the limit.

The negative impact of these developments on the ecosystems and their natural characteristics has been manifestly evident in the coastal strips which have been subjected to rapid urbanisation, demographic pressure and unrestrained development. This has resulted in conflicts among competing uses of limited and ecologically sensitive natural resources, invariably resulting in serious socio-economic and political consequences. The coastal strip is also the place where freshwater mixes with sea water, so that ecological and economic implications aggravate the problem of managing and developing these water resources.

 

 


The Mediterranean watershed (Grenon and Batisse, 1989)

PAP Activity


PAP has been at the forefront in acknowledging coastal water resources management as a priority issue. In the attempt to propagate and assist in the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to water resources management PAP, through the priority actions in the Mediterranean, has actively supported an integrated approach to water resources planning and management. The activities of PAP have extended from numerous seminars, workshops and expert meetings to the implementation of several projects, the most important being the project of water resources management in Malta. As a result of this activity PAP has organised, in co-operation with the Institute of Water Technology of the Water Services Corporation of Malta, five successful training courses for participants from various Mediterranean countries.
PAP has been concentrating its efforts on providing assistance to Mediterranean States in implementing the general objectives as set in Chapter 18 of "Agenda 21", a policy document on water resources issues adopted by a large number of governments. The recommendations of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, 1992) formed the basis of the Mediterranean Water Charter (Rome, 1992), and were fully endorsed and adopted by the Tunis Conference (1994) in the Agenda "Med 21".
In full harmony with priority issues and the general principles of "Agenda 21", "The Med Water Charter" and Agenda "Med 21", one of the activities of PAP for the 1995/6 was the preparation of PAP "Guidelines for an Integrated Approach to the Development, Management and Use of Coastal Water Resources". The Guidelines are aimed at practising engineers, natural and social scientists and middle-rank managers in the field of water resources development, management and use.

Publications/Documents

 

PAP/RAC. 2007. Integrated Coastal Urban Water System Planning in Coastal Areas of the Mediterranean. Volume I. Principles and Planning. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xiii + 85.

(Download pap_watersystem_vol1_novo.pdf // 2.24MB)

PAP/RAC. 2007. Directives pour la gestion intégrée des eaux urbaines en zone littorale méditerranéenne. Volume I. Principes et planification. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xiii + 85.

(Download watersystem_volume_I_franc_fin.pdf // 4.5MB)

 

 

PAP/RAC. 2007. Integrated Coastal Urban Water System Planning in Coastal Areas of the Mediterranean. Volume II. Tools and Instruments. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xvi + 123.

(Download pap_watersystem_vol2_novo.pdf // 2.50MB)

PAP/RAC. 2007. Directives pour la gestion intégrée des eaux urbaines en zone littorale méditerranéenne. Volume II. Outils et instruments. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xvi + 123.

(Download watersystem_volume_II_franc_fin.pdf // 9.4MB)

 

 
MARGETA, J., IACOVIDES, I., and AZZOPARDI, E. 1997. Integrated approach to development, management and use of water resources/Directives pour l’approche intégrée au développement, à la gestion et à l’utilisation des ressources en eau. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 154. ENG/FRA/CRO

In harmony with the Agenda 21, the Mediterranean Water Charter and Agenda Med 21, this document sets down Guidelines for Integrated Approach to Development, Management and Use of Water Resources. The Guidelines are targeted to practising engineers, natural and social scientists and middle-rank managers in the field of water. The idea is to help Mediterranean countries to achieve a sustainable development of their coastal areas, and to present a standard methodology, while facilitating better understanding of water resources and improving communication among collaborating experts. The Guidelines discuss all aspects and particularities of the concept of sustainable development and integrated approach (problems and conflicts related to three basic systems of activities, namely those of the water resources, of the human activities and of the water resources management, including their components and characteristics; aspects of development, management and use of water resources – planning process, interdisciplinary relations, economic, legislative, and institutional aspects, information support, assessment of water resources and water demand, water quality, and environmental considerations; basic procedures for integrated approach – water resources management based on a sustainability principles, master planning, relevant techniques and methods, data management, and elements of a water resources master plan). The guidelines are enriched with graphs, tables and, on certain aspects, with detailed presentation in box-form, of country case examples.

 

MARGETA, J., IACOVIDES, I., and AZZOPARDI, E. 1997. Integrated approach to development, management and use of water resources/Directives pour l’approche intégrée au développement, à la gestion et à l’utilisation des ressources en eau. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 154. ENG/FRA/CRO

(Download Guidelines - Coastal Water Management.pdf / 3.09MB)

(Download Directives - Gestion des ressources en eau.pdf / 3.56 MB)

In harmony with the Agenda 21, the Mediterranean Water Charter and Agenda Med 21, this document sets down Guidelines for Integrated Approach to Development, Management and Use of Water Resources. The Guidelines are targeted to practising engineers, natural and social scientists and middle-rank managers in the field of water. The idea is to help Mediterranean countries to achieve a sustainable development of their coastal areas, and to present a standard methodology, while facilitating better understanding of water resources and improving communication among collaborating experts. The Guidelines discuss all aspects and particularities of the concept of sustainable development and integrated approach (problems and conflicts related to three basic systems of activities, namely those of the water resources, of the human activities and of the water resources management, including their components and characteristics; aspects of development, management and use of water resources – planning process, interdisciplinary relations, economic, legislative, and institutional aspects, information support, assessment of water resources and water demand, water quality, and environmental considerations; basic procedures for integrated approach – water resources management based on a sustainability principles, master planning, relevant techniques and methods, data management, and elements of a water resources master plan). The guidelines are enriched with graphs, tables and, on certain aspects, with detailed presentation in box-form, of country case examples.

 

MARGETA, J. 1995. Proceedings of the Workshop on Application of Integrated Approach to Development, Management and Use of Water Resources, Marseilles, November 24-26, 1994/Actes de l’Atelier sur l’application d’une approche integrée au développement, à la gestion et à l’utilisation des ressources en eau, Marseille, 24-26 Novembre 1994. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vii + 192. ENG/FRA

The purpose of the Workshop is to bring together specialists, administrators or other interested participants to consider and discuss the specific problems of the integrated development, management and use of water resources in the Mediterranean region. The Workshop, organised jointly by PAP/RAC and the Mediterranean Water Institute (IME) of Marseilles, was attended by 36 participants from 15 Mediterranean countries, as well as the representatives of UNEP, MAP, the World Bank, and 21 participants invited by IME. This book contains 15 national reports which were presented in the Workshop, and two introductory papers. Some of the reports are presented in English, and some in French. The purpose of the introductory papers was to provide the participants with brief information on the two basic concepts of the integrated development, management and use of water resources in the Mediterranean, and on the general methodology of preparation of a general water resources master plan. The objective of national reports was to present briefly the situation in the individual Mediterranean countries and the possibilities for the integrated development, management and use of water resources. The reports were written by experts with various professional backgrounds and knowledge. This document will be useful for the professionals dealing with, or interested in the solution of those problems in the region. From the national reports it is clear that the integrated management of water resources does not have a long tradition in the Mediterranean. In general, water resources management problems get due attention only when they grow so much as to present obstacle to a harmonious development. It was concluded that inter-regional co-operation, or international co-operation in general, could contribute greatly to speeding up the practical application of the concept of Integrated Development, Management and use of Water Resources.

 

PAP/RAC. 1992. Proposal of a Water Conservation Programme for the Maltese Islands - First Draft. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 60. ENG

The basic idea behind this document was to create a good basis for the definitive formulation of the Project of Management of Water Resources of Malta, and the experience will be used in similar projects in the Mediterranean (background information, history, main problems, objectives, tasks, institutional arrangement, financial support, evaluation of the water supply system in Malta, analysis of possible measures for the implementation of the programme, and plan of implementation of direct measures).

 

PAP/RAC. 1992. Contents and Elements of a Typical Water Resources Master Plan (First Draft). Split: PAP/RAC. pp 34. ENG

The first part of the document presents the principal characteristics of the available water resources (hydro-climatological factors, regime and quality of surface waters, hydrogeology, regime and quality of ground waters, data bank, parameters to be included in the water balance), significant natural factors (soil, erosion, protected areas), socio-economic factors, and projected consumption increase. The second part selects and analyzes measures to resolve problems relative to water resources (storing of surface and ground waters; protection against flooding, storm run-off and erosion; urban and industrial sewerage systems; protection of water resources: classification, types of pollution and relevant reduction measures; use of water for various purposes: industry, agriculture, energy production; synthesis of demand by various sectors; water supply: criteria, alternative solutions, proposals, economic effects of optimum solutions.

 

PAP/RAC. 1992. Documents of the Training Course on Database for Water Resources Management. TC. 2. Split: PAP/RAC. ENG

A collection of 11 documents (activities of MAP/PAP in general; PAP activities in the field of water resources; concept of training courses; analysis of resources of Malta; general concept of water resources management; hydrological data base; presentation of the data base of the Maltese project; practical exercises in data collection and processing).

 

PAP/RAC. 1992. Documents of the Training Course on the Use of Aquifer Models in Water Resources Management. TC. 3. Split: PAP/RAC. ENG

A collection of 12 documents (water resources and assessment of required quantities; application of hydrological and hydrogeological concepts in aquifer modeling; groundwater modeling; preparation of aquifer models; models used in the Maltese project; the "Sutra" finite elements model; methods of protection of groundwater resources against pollution; contents and elements of a typical water resources master plan).

 

PAP/RAC. 1993. Documents of the Training Course on the Seslected Topics of Water Resources Management. TC. 4. Split: PAP/RAC. ENG

A collection of 14 documents (water resources: problems relative to demand management, integrated planning; use of demonstration of data base for the Maltese project; groundwater models - application on the Maltese aquifer; mathematical models, practical exercises; water saving).

 

PAP/RAC, in co-operation with the Government of Malta and BRGM-France. 1991. Study of the Fresh Water Resources of Malta. Contract Document. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 60. ENG

The document consists of: PART I - General Conditions (Definitions; Commencement of Service; Duration of the Contract; Obligations of BRGM; Obligations of Water Services Department; Security; Terms of Payment; Taxes, Duties and Levies; Confidentiality, Liability; Assignment; Arbitration; Termination; Insurance; Communications; Interpretation; Law of the Agreement; Entire Agreement; Headings); PART II - Technical Specifications (Foreword; General Description of Tasks; Data Collection; Data Bank; Modeling; Institutional Aspects; Reports; Training; Post Contract Services; Government Personnel, Project Equipment, Facilities and Logistical Support to be Provided by WSD; Computer Equipment; Vehicle; Journeys; List of Outputs); PART III - Financial Conditions; PART IV - Technical Annexes; Data Bank Installation and Development; Hydrodynamic Characteristics; Production Galleries Survey; Potentiometry of the Main Sea Level Aquifer; Airborne Infrared Thermographic Survey; Water Quality and Environmental Aspects; Mathematical Modeling.

 

PAPADOPOULOS, I., LIBHABER, M., BAHRI, A., and SKENDROVIC, V. 1991. Environmental Guidelines for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in the Mediterranean Region/Directives environnementales pour la réutilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans la région méditerranéenne. Split: PAP/RAC-FAO. pp 151. ENG/FRA

These guidelines are intended for national and local authorities in charge of planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of urban wastewater collection, treatment and use plants, as well as for planners and decision makers at the national level. The publication contains the basic principles of environmental protection to be applied in harmony with the local legal acts and for the establishment of norms. It has 9 chapters: Introduction (use of water resources and reduction of coastal resource pollution); General Considerations (prerequisites, benefits, environmental impacts); Problems (public health risks, environmental protection); Technological Considerations (characteristics of municipal wastewaters, quality criteria for various uses, treatment methods); Wastewater Treatment Alternatives; Environmental Control Measures (general and for special purposes); System Planning and Management (procedure, economic/financial aspects, social acceptability, education, legal aspects, system monitoring and evaluation); Project Design and Implementation; Case Studies in the Mediterranean Region (Spain, Tunisia, Egypt, Cyprus, Italy, France, Israel, Malta, Croatia).

 

PAP/RAC. 1991. Water Conservation Measures in Israel. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 83. ENG

The document is divided in five chapters and six annexes. The introductory part presents the main features of the water saving programme and assesses the contribution of relevant measures, particularly stressing the applicability of the Israeli experience in other countries. These chapters follow: water consumption in the urban sector and "in-house" consumption control, efficiency of educational actions, taxes, "out-of-house saving measures; water consumption for parks and green areas, and saving measures in that sector; the situation and applicability of saving measures in the industrial sector; water utilization in agriculture and technologies contributing to consumption reduction. The annexes deal with: water resources management, legal and administrative measures; saving measures by sectors, water supply systems; principal activities of ICWE (The Israel Center for Water Works Equipment); emergency saving measures; criteria for watering green areas; standards for irrigation in agriculture; The Central Jordan Valley Case Study; examples of saving through the use of tenziometre.

 

PAP/RAC. 1991. Water Conservation Campaign for the Maltese Islands. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 43. ENG

This document is a result of the cooperation between PAP and the Water Services Corporation (Malta). It presents a comprehensive description of the water supply of Malta through history, and the problems related to the lack of water due to various factors. It further presents the objectives and distribution of the project tasks within the programme, the institutional aspects, and details of the financial support of the Government of Malta and PAP/RAC. The programme is expected to result in considerable quantitative and qualitative (both short- and long-term) benefits for Malta and other Mediterranean countries (training, etc.). Annexes contain data on the Maltese islands (geographical position, climate, hydrology, aquifers, ways of supply, groundwater balance, list of topics to be included in the programme).

 

UNEP-PAP/RAC. 1990. Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in the Mediterranean Region/Réutilisation agricole des eaux usées dans la région méditerranéenne. MAP Technical Reports Series No. 41. Athens: UNEP/MAP. pp ix + 311. ENG/FRA

This technical report is based on the documents presented at the workshop on the treatment and use of sewage effluents for irrigation in the Mediterranean Region (Split, November 1987) . The report illustrates the relevant techniques and methods and gives a brief review of the state of art in this field. The presented documents are grouped in three parts: results of the workshop; some general and specific aspects of waste water treatment and re-use for irrigation; and national reports and case studies. The report is addressed to the decision makers and technicians dealing in the Mediterranean countries with water resources development, with the aim to familiarize them with the available experiences and various possibilities of resolving the problems of waste water treatment and re-use for irrigation.

 

PAP/RAC. 1990. Documents of the Training Course on Water Resources Management of the Island of Malta and Basic Groundwater Hydraulics and Modelling. TC. 1. Split: PAP/RAC. ENG

Eight documents comprise lectures on the study of water resources in Malta (presentation of the project; data bank; various types of models in hydrology; information on PAP activities; information on the Maltese project and its objectives; technical problems relative to water resources; hydrological cycle in the Maltese islands; data on groundwater recharging and introduction of modeling method).

 

FAYAS, J. , DUSSART, B. , IACOVIDES, I., LIBHABER, M., and MARGETA, J. 1989. Review of References for Guidebook: "Water Resources Management in Small Mediterranen Islands and Coastal Areas". Split:PAP/RAC. pp 96. ENG

Following the conclusions of the meeting held in Split in March 1987, PAP/RAC prepared a reference list of literature selected by consultants, experts in water resources management. The list comprises the following topics: planning and management of water resources in small islands and coastal areas; evaluation of ground and surface waters; submarine pipelines; water tankers; desalination; rain harvesting; design and construction of water supply systems; water purification and disinfection; operation and maintenance of water supply systems; water economy; rational management of water resources; environmental impacts; problems relative to increased demand due to tourism; quality, recovery and urgent disinfection; wastewater reuse; sea water intrusion and submarine springs.

 

UNEP-PAP/RAC. 1987. Water Resources Development of Small Mediterranean Islands and Isolated Coastal Areas. Documents Produced in the First Stage of the Priority Action (1984-1985)/Développement des ressources en eau des petites îles et des zones côtières isoleés méditerranéennes. Textes rédigés au cours de la première phase de l'action prioritaire (1984-1985). MAP Technical Reports Series No. 12. Athens: UNEP/MAP. pp 162. ENG/FRA

The topics covered by this technical report are related to water resources development of small Mediterranean islands and isolated coastal areas (hydrology, alternative water resources, rain harvesting, management of water resources, mathematical models). Technical methods and the actual state of the resources are briefly described. All activities preceding the preparation of the document are described in the introductory chapter. The selected documents, prepared during the first phase of this priority action, have their principal subjects presented clearly and briefly, without going into great details. This paper, intended for local authorities, decision-makers and technical staff in the field of water resources development, enables assessment of the situation in other regions, and provides information on and means for resolving problems relative to water supply in small islands and isolated coastal areas.

 

UNEP-PAP/RAC. 1987. Specific Topics Related to Water Resources Development of Large Mediterranean Islands. Documents Produced in the Second Phase of the Priority Action (1985-1986)/Thèmes spécifiques concernant le développement des ressources en eau des grandes îles méditerranéennes. Textes rédigés au cours de la deuxième phase de l'action prioritaire (1985-1986). MAP Technical Reports Series No.13. Athens: UNEP/MAP. pp 162. ENG/FRA

The main subject of this technical report is the development of water resources in large Mediterranean islands. It is based on the documents prepared in the second phase of this priority action, presented in the working group meeting "Problems of Water Resources and their Recovery in Large Mediterranean Islands and Isolated Coastal Areas with Fluctuating Population Due to Tourism" (Malta, December 1986). The first part contains papers produced by PAP (synthesis of questionnaires, submarine pipelines, ground and surface waters, water tankers, desalination, wastewaters), while the second part presents papers prepared by the WHO (protection of waters against pollution, sanitary problems, ecological indicators of coastal waters). The principal objective of the preparation of this technical report was to produce a document useful for local authorities, decision-makers and technical staff in the field of water resources development, enabling them to assess the situation in other regions, and to gain information and experience.

 

MARGETA, J. 1986. Synthesis of Reports on the Activities Carried Out so far within the Framework of the Priority Action on Water Resources Management in Small Mediterranean Islands and Isolated Coastal Areas/Synthèse des rapports sur les activités mises en oeuvre dans le cadre de l'action prioritaire sur la Gestion des ressources en eau des petites îles et zones côtières isolées méditerranéennes. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 31. ENG/FRA

The reports summarizing the performed activities were presented in the Seminar on Water Resources Management in Small Mediterranean islands and Isolated Coastal Areas (Palma de Mallorca, September 1986). On the basis of achieved results, an overview is presented of the actual state of resources development in the considered areas, and recommendations are made for resolving the problems. For the preparation of this synthesis, the author used only the documents resulting from this activity. The opinions and suggestions arrived at by the author on the basis of available data, reflect his own opinions.

 

CADILLON, M., COVA, R., JEUDI de GRISSAC, B., OLIVIER, L., and TREMEA, L. 1986. La gestion des ressources en eau sur l'île de Porquerolles - Problématique et perspectives d'optimisation. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 87. FRA

Malgré des ressources en eau très limitées, l'île de Porquerolles est restée indépendante du continent pour son alimentation en eau, et les besoins sont aujourd'hui satisfaits avec des eaux de très bonne qualité. Cette étude présente les différentes actions entreprises sur cette île, ainsi que les critères de choix, les méthodes de détermination des dimensions des ouvrages et les performances des installations. Les actions menées peuvent être résumées en cinq points: a) définition des ressources disponibles; b) mise en valeur de ces ressources par un dispositif d'exploitation performant; c) protection des nappes contre les invasions marines par une surveillance permanente et par le choix d'ouvrages de captage bien adaptés aux conditions locales; d) augmentation des ressources par remise en culture des terres, qui favorise l'infiltration et la recharge des nappes; et e) économie de l'eau, aussi bien en amont, par sensibilisation des utilisateurs, qu'en aval, par recyclage des eaux usées.

 

MAIFREDI, P. and DE PAZ, M. 1986. Pratique et expérience en utilisation du dessalement pour l'approvisionnement en eau des îles et des zones côtières isolées d'Italie. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 43. FRA

Après un aperçu des principaux problèmes d'approvisionnement en eau, dans ce document sont présentés les problèmes liés au dessalement (caractéristiques de l'eau, choix de la technologie et de la source principale d'énergie, fonctionnement et durée de vie des installations, coûts de construction/exploitation, amortissement). Suivent une description des différentes méthodes et technologies, et un aperçu de la situation en Italie, appuyé par plusieurs exemples. A la fin, une référence est faite au projet de construction de 6 installations de dessalement en Sicile.

 
 
 
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