The project area is the entire national coastline, 188 km long, which can be divided into four morphological sections according to physical characteristics and sedimentological properties: Rosh Hanikra, Haifa Bay, the Carmel coastal plane, and South of Caesarea. Roughly 70% of Israel's population, which reached 5,5 million in 1995, lives within 15 km of the Mediterranean coastline. Intensive settlement along the coastal strip over the last 50 years now dominates the land use pattern of the area, particularly the two major population centres of Tel Aviv and Haifa. The narrow coastal strip is the focus of the country's economic and commercial activity. The coastal strip also contains the most fertile agricultural land of Israel, especially for citrus production. The coastal strip encompasses several nature reserves (mainly river mouths and rocky shores), national parks (beaches of high value for recreation in natural surroundings and sites of archaeological interest) and marine reserves.
Major problems and issues
Dominant problems and issues identified were those related to a developed country, needing an improved environment/development decision making and practice, namely: congestion of urban settlements, industrial and energy production activities, tourism, transport, looking for a sustainable development oriented strategy. In addition, some specific problems were identified related to development pressure on coastal and marine resources, need for their protection, marine pollution, impact on marine structures, loss of areas for tourism and recreation, coastal erosion and problems of conservation of sandy beaches, and alike.
CAMP Israel, carried out in the period 1996-2000, was oriented at the creation and promotion of the process of integrated planning and management through 6 interrelated activities, as follows:
Several of the CAMP activities proposed relate to the country as a whole, not just to the coastal area or a part of the coastal area. Human settlements, industry, energy, much of tourism and transport are physically concentrated in the coastal area, but serve the whole country. Changes in any activities in the coastal area are thus likely to effect the entire country. Consequently, the sustainable development strategy is being discussed at the national level, and any CAMP activities at the policy-making level are, therefore, relevant to the country as a whole.
Major project results
- In addition, the fact that each of the activities undertaken within the CAMP has a value of its own, their synergistic contribution has significantly advanced coastal area management because it is not reasonable to discuss it without understanding of how the economic dynamics of the country generate development pressures or how the natural dynamic processes and anthropomorphic intervention cause beach accretion, sand loss, cliff retreat, etc.
- Policies for effective coastal management were proposed, which should be based on a holistic approach and specific expertise in a wide variety of disciplines, and backed up by effective information processing and by investigations of potential regulative and economic instruments for implementation.
- The activities in this CAMP are to be considered in overall context of coastal zone management in Israel. These activities investigated areas for concern which were in need of more detailed consideration, and, together with existing knowledge and expertise, contributed to improving the basis for policy formulation both in the coastal area and at a national level.
Follow-up activities have already been generated, based on the CAMP activities. Plans are now being advanced to publish and distribute several of the documents produced within the framework of CAMP as a means of further increasing the awareness of the general public and of professionals in different fields.
Seminars on Dutch and American models of consensus building and conflict resolution have been organised, and others are being planned. In 1999, a special workshop on conflict management and resolution was held in Israel with the participation of world experts. Specific case studies in several environmental areas of conflict were presented for discussion, including coastal planning.
It is anticipated that the sustainable development strategy, which was developed within the framework of CAMP, will be presented to the directors general of all government ministries in order to familiarise them with the concept and encourage them to integrate this approach into their own sector. While the sustainable development strategy is not expected to become a statutory document, it is expected to point the way to new paths and a new approach which takes account of causes, not just effects. The integration of the principles of sustainable development into the processes and activities of the local authority will be a key element of the introduction of sustainable development to Israel as a whole.
|MAP Technical Reports 134: MAP CAMP Project "Israel": Final Integrated Report and Selected Documents |
GABBAY, S. 2000. Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Israel: Final Integrated Report. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 89. ENG
The intent of CAMP Israel was to help translate the new concepts included in Agenda 21 and Med Agenda 21 into practical applications in a Mediterranean coastal area. The programme focused on issues of acute concern in the local context, such as beach erosion and coastal sand supply, which, to date, have not received sufficient attention within MAP. CAMP Israel was conceived as a catalyst for new ideas and concepts which could generate changes in the directions of policy making in the country. The programme had two main objectives: a) to encourage policy makers of economic development sectors to take responsibility for the environmental impacts of their decisions and to incorporate environmental considerations in their decision making processes (sustainable development, capacity building, economic instruments); b) to improve the professional basis for policy making on issues not sufficiently covered in current coastal zone management (pollution control, beach erosion, cliff stability, climate change, biodiversity). The document consists of eleven sections.
|GABBAY, S. 2000. Coastal Zone Management in Israel. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 65. ENG|
GOLDBERG, G., and GABBAY, S. 1996. Israel's environmental impact assessment system. Environmental impact assessment case studies: Herzlya Marina, Herzlya. PAP - 12/IL/CS.1. Split:PAP/RAC. pp. vi + 154. ENG
The two EIA case studies contained in this document were drafted in response to the explicit wish of the trainees during a series of EIA training courses organised in the Mediterranean countries for the relevant case studies to be prepared, published and disseminated throughout the Mediterranean region. More such documents are planned to be obtained from the Mediterranean countries with experience in the application of EIA. The principal objective of these documents is to further the education of national EIA experts by providing a good example of how the Guidelines for the preparation of an EIA document and the EIA document itself should look like, as well as by providing information on the evaluation of EIA documents, monitoring of impacts, re-assessment of development projects, and participation of the general and professional public.