PAC "Ile de Rhodes" (Grèce)

Zone du projet

L'île de Rhodes est située dans l'est de la Méditerranée, au coin sud-est de l'archipel d'Egée, près de l'Asie Mineure. Elle couvre une superficie totale de 1.498 km, dont 220 km de linéaire côtier. Suivant le recensement de 1981, la population de l'île compte 88.000 habitants, et il est estimé qu'elle a augmenté à 117.000 en 1991. Cela illustre la caractéristique principale de l'évolution démographique, une croissance relativement élevée de la population. Les mouvements migratoires à l'intérieur de l'île sont importants, particulièrement vers sa partie Nord. Presque la moitié de la population insulaire est concentrée dans la zone de la ville de Rhodes. La zone du projet couvre 1% du territoire national, avec 1,5% de la population nationale et 15% des activités touristiques nationales. Le tourisme est le principal facteur de développement de l'île. Cela implique la croissance des activités complémentaires (approvisionnement, services divers, artisanat) mais souvent au détriment d'autres secteurs économiques, en premier lieu l'agriculture.

Principaux problèmes et questions

Les principaux problèmes et questions, cités ci-après, ont été identifiés pendant la phase préparatoire des activités du PAP sur l'île de Rhodes:

  • l'expansion incontrôlée des activités touristiques qui a pour résultat une urbanisation excessive de la côte et qui met en danger l'environnement naturel et le patrimoine culturel;
  • la structure économique: monoculture touristique, présence de premiers signes de déclin touristique, nouveaux plans d'expansion supplémentaire et intensive du tourisme dans des régions relativement vierges;
  • les problèmes en matière d'infrastructure: gestion des déchets, gestion des ressources en eau, dépendance des sources externes d'énergie;
  • la nécessité de renforcer les capacités aux niveaux local et préfectoral.

Activités du projet

Le projet a été réalisé en trois phases, comme un des projets pilote du PAP, comme un des projets du PAC et comme un projet METAP-BEI/PAM financé par la Banque européenne d'investissement (BEI). Grâce aux fonds assuré par la BEI, la phase finale était centrée sur la planification détaillée, y compris la préparation des études de faisabilité, l'élaboration des plans généraux et des plans de détail intégrés. Les activités suivantes ont été réalisées pendant ces trois phases:
  • mise en ouvre des protocoles "tellurique" et "immersions"
  • suivi continu et contrôle de la pollution
  • énergies renouvelables
  • SIG, EIE, capacité d'accueil pour le tourisme
  • planification intégrée
  • protection des ressources naturelles
  • protection du patrimoine culturel.

Principaux résultats

  • Recommandations de base:
    • réduire l'expansion planifiée des facilités touristiques;
    • appliquer les mesures recommandées pour le développement progressif d'une économie diversifiée;
    • mettre en ouvre les plans détaillés: le Plan général des ressources en eau, qui envisage la construction d'un système d'approvisionnement en eau, y compris la construction d'un grand réservoir d'eau; l'Etude détaillée de planification, les programmes de protection de la nature et des sites naturels, et le programme d'utilisation des énergies renouvelables;
  • formation en matière de: plan général de gestion des ressources en eau, SIG, ECA pour des activités touristique, EIE;
  • acquisition de l'équipement et du logiciel (aux autorités locales et à l'IGME, institution qui a préparé le plan général des ressources en eau).

Suivi

Les principales activités de suivi sont liées à la mise en ouvre du Plan général des ressources en eau, particulièrement la construction du barrage de Gadoura. Les fonds pour cette construction ont été approuvés.

Publications/Documents

TSOTSOS, D., KATSAOUNIS, A., and ANGELIDIS, M. 1994. General Plan for Management of Waste Waters - Part II. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 154. ENG

The second part of the General Plan for Management of Waste Waters deals with planning of systems. Numerous data were studies and a number of solutions prepared that could be applied both in Rhodes and in other Mediterranean areas. First, from the generally accepted criteria and standards, those elements were singled out to which the decision makers have to pay particular attention when formulating possible wastewater management systems, in order to produce minimum negative environmental effects. The study also lists and analyses the socio-economic factors that could significantly influence the formulation and adoption of the optimum solution.

 

MARGETA, J. 1993. Technical Specification of the Project "Water Resources Master Plan of the Island of Rhodes. CAMP 1993/GR/WRMP/TP.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 44. ENG

The detailed specification of the project was divided into the following parts: 1. Hydroclimatological Factors; 2. Regime and Quality of the Surface Water; 3. Hydrogeology, Regime and Quality of Ground Water; 4. Development of the Island Water Resources Data Base; 5. Natural Water Balance; 6. Natural Factors Related to Water Resources Master Plan; 7. Socio-Economic Factors and Development of Water Demand; 8. Water Storage; 9. Protection from Water; 10. Sewerage Systems in Settlements and Industry; 11. Protection of Water Resources; 12. Water Exploitation; 13. Analysis and Selection of Water Supply Solutions; 14. Synthesis Report on Measures and Activities for Using the Island Water Resources. For each of the above chapters, a brief introduction, objectives and prerequisites are given, and expected results and tasks defined.

 

TRUMBIC, I. 1993. The Integrated Planning Study for the Island of Rhodes, Greece - Case Study. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 33. ENG

This study represents the first major step towards launching the process of integrated planning of coastal areas of the island of Rhodes. Its intention was to offer a practical planning and management instrument for: quick identification of development and ecological problems; securing a quick overview of the most favourable future development of the island possible, based on the assessment of natural resources capacity to sustain the human interventions; proposing spatial development strategies and appropriate management actions; and proposing urgent measures. Example is given of an area in which ecological problems have not yet fully developed, but there are indications that in some of its parts the primary natural resources, on which the development of the island is based, have been used above the sustainable limits, which threatens future development projects. Upon an analysis of the situation, certain development projects are proposed and their environmental effects describe. Finally, experience gained during the preparation of the study is presented.

 

TSOTSOS, D., and KATSAOUNIS, A. 1993. General Plan for Management of Waste Waters - Part I. CAMP/1993/GR/LWM/GP.1/1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 213. ENG

For an island with highly developed tourism and considerable industrial capacities, efficient management of wastewaters is of utmost importance. Since a General Wastewater Management Plan of the island, which is the essential element of a successful control of effluent discharges, still doesn't exist, it was decided to make one, following the Code of Practice for Environmentally Sound Management of Liquid Waste Discharge in the Mediterranean Sea prepared by PAP/RAC. Since the Code of Practice has not yet been tested in practice, the Rhodes plan will have a pilot character for the Mediterranean region. This, first part, gives the analysis of the situation based on the existing data on the collection, treatment and discharge of wastewaters. It also gives a brief review of criteria and standards defined by the local authorities, UN agencies and the European Community.

 

BERLENGI, G. 1992. Training Programme on Geographical Information System - Final Report. CAMP/1990-91/GR/GIS-TC.6. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 23. ENG

It was estimated that geographical information systems (GIS) were a useful instrument for numerous forms of management of natural and urban resources. Therefore, within PAP/RAC, and with UNEP support, a team of experts was established and trained to perform training on GIS and on the use of the pcARC/INFO software for the needs of PAP's national projects in the Mediterranean. One of those projects is CAMP "The Island of Rhodes", within which this activity has produced the following results, summarised in this report: a team of local experts has been trained to work individually; appropriate hardware and the pcARC/INFO software have been installed; the basic GIS database has been established, a number of illustrations prepared, and several analyses performed.

 

KOSTARIDIS, G., and TSOTSOS, D. 1992. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Rhodes Wastewater Treatment Plant. CAMP/1991-1992/GR/EIA.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 35. ENG

Since the traditional methods of environmental impact assessment for development projects were complicated and commanded high costs, UNEP has developed, in co-operation with MAP/PAP, a simplified method, adapted to developing countries. Upon a proposal by the Government of Greece, this method has been applied to the urban wastewater treatment plant of the city of Rhodes. The objective of the study was to help the decision makers offering them, already at an early stage of considering the project, its description and assessment of its environmental impacts.

 

DRAGICEVIC, M., KLARIC Z., CURL, G., FOKIALI-TSOLAKIDIS, P., COLLIGRIS, C., and ANASTASSIADIS, L. 1993. Study for the Carrying Capacity Assessment of the Central - Eastern Part of the Island of Rhodes. CAMP/1991-1992/GR/CC.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 56. ENG

This study represents a practical application of the methodological instructions for performing carrying capacity assessment of an area for the development of tourism. The basic objective was to determine the optimum level of the future tourism development in the central-eastern part of the island of Rhodes, following the principles of sustainable development. Based on the analysis of collected data, proposals are made for the development of tourism in the area until the year 2010 with the maximum numbers of tourist beds distributed by the most important settlements.

 
 
 
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